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Drainage density map

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Degree of channelization

Differentiation of the degree of channelization of the Baikal basin has a clearly pronounced zonal nature: from 0.1 km/km2 at the south-eastern boundary to 0.9 km/km2 on the coastal ridges and in the northern territories. A high degree of channelization is characteristic of the taiga zone, especially of ranges and valleys immediately adjacent to the lake. In general, the northern part of the basin is characterized by favorable conditions of flow. Mountainous terrain, steep slopes and the presence of permafrost contribute to a rapid discharge of water into the main water streams, namely, the Upper Angara and the Barguzin, and to the development of the river network. The highest density is specific to the western slopes of the Barguzinsky (0.92 km/km2) and Khamar-Daban (0.69 km/km2) ranges. Among the plain territories, the most water-abundant areas are the Barguzin valley (0.89 km/km2) and the area of the Selenga river delta (0.68 km/km2).

The middle part of the basin is characterized by the mid-mountain terrain and a high occurrence of sandy and sandy loam soils. The presence of these factors provides for the average degree of channelization ranging from 0.35 km/km2 in the middle reaches of the Selenga river and 0.55 km/km2 for the Chikoy river basin to 0.61 km/km2 for the Khilok and Dzhida river basins.

In physical-geographical terms, the south-western part of the basin, i.e. the area of Lake Khovsgol, represents a forest-steppe with the high-mountain depression terrain, and is characterized by a lower degree of channelization ranging from 0.32 km/km2 for the Delger-Muren river basin to 0.34 km/km2 for the Egiin-Gol river basin. In the southern dry steppe part of the basin a low degree of channelization is registered. This is especially typical for the Tuul and Kharaa river basins; here this index is below 0.2 km/km2.

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Ecological preconditions for the spread of zooanthroponoses map

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Environmental prerequisites of the spread of zooanthroponoses

The synthetic map “Environmental prerequisites of the spread of zooanthroponoses” is intended primarily for institutions working on the issues of nature conservation, environmental management, and human safety (in a broad sense of the term), as well as for the territory development planners. In the process of compiling the map, an ecological classification of zooanthroponoses was developed based on their relations with natural complexes and groups of animals. This classification subdivides them into ubiquitous (widely, almost universally spread), riparian, meadow, forest, and steppe groups. Each of these groups combines ecologically close species of pathogens with similar needs for heat and moisture and circulating in the same type of biocenosis.

The map shows a territorial distribution of spatial units of the nosoecological division of different taxonomic ranks: nosoecological belts, zones, and regional variants of zonal nosoecosystems. The aforementioned ecological groups of pathogens dominate in corresponding nosoecosystems of the high rank (zonal). In this case, representatives of other ecological groups are usually widespread in local habitats. The map gives a key to the development of a strategy aimed at preventing the spread of zooanthroponoses in the system of sustainable environmental management. There is a reason to believe that different ecological groups of pathogens perform different roles in maintaining the stability of biocenoses and preserving the natural environment. Representatives of the riparian and meadow groups regulate the quantitative composition of the vertebrate animals’ population (mostly rodents), stopping their mass reproduction and thus preventing the destruction of vegetation. Apparently, pathogens of the forest group (in particular, the tick-borne encephalitis virus) are able to regulate the qualitative composition of a biocenosis, protecting it from alien species, i.e. inhabitants of other (neighboring) terrain types (meadow, steppe), the number of which is subject to significant fluctuations. In seems that pathogens of the group of ubiquitous zooanthroponoses can perform various functions regulating qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but only in the group of parasites associated with vertebrates in a given biocenosis, thereby ensuring survival and well-being to their hosts.

These functional differences can become the basis for the development of a system of the differentiated (by landscape types) prevention of the spread of zooanthroponoses taking into account the issue of the nature and human health protection. The current level of research gives grounds to consider the regulation of the epizootic process as reasonable in those parasitic systems (riparian and meadow), where the function of pathogens is the reduction of the hosts’ number. The prevention of the spread of most zooanthroponoses (included in the riparian and meadow groups) should be carried out to optimize the density of animal population through a sustainable use of meadow vegetation by humans and the timely crops harvesting. The consequences of the human intervention in the process of circulation of pathogens regulating qualitative parameters of the structure of biocenoses are less obvious. The intensity of pathogen circulation of almost all zooanthroponoses (infections and invasions) increases in habitable and populated areas, which is due both to the introduction of farm animals, the increased concentration of which favors the development of infections, and to the human impact on the environment accompanied by the increase in the number of rodents, a change in the chemistry of soils, creation of artificial ponds, etc.

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Education map

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Educational

Education is an important factor of economic and social development. An individual, her or his knowledge and skills, and the ability to make nonstandard decisions in a rapidly changing economic environment are the most valuable element of society. Educational services can become a lever that can push the economy to a qualitatively new stage of development.

Preschool education aims to support mental, personal, and physical development of children aged 2 to 8 years. Depending on the laws, traditions and cultures, the approach to preschool education varies. It can have different basic and specific tasks. It can be compulsory or voluntary, and it may be implemented through a variety of traditional institutions. Within the study area, there are 1,436 preschool educational institutions with about 237.6 thousand children.

Secondary education is the first level of education. Currently, it usually includes primary, basic secondary, and secondary (complete) education, as well as additional education of children. In the Baikal basin, there are 1,412 secondary schools with about 637.5 thousand children.

In the Irkutsk part of the basin, there are 206 kindergartens with 35,268 children and 182 secondary schools with 86,982 students. In the Republic of Buryatia, there are 394 kindergartens with 45,007 children and 517 secondary schools with 123,362 students. In Zabaikalsky krai, there are 150 kindergartens with 24,119 children and 187 secondary schools with 57,210 students. In Mongolia, there are 685 kindergartens with 133,239 children and 523 secondary schools with 369,900 students.

Secondary vocational education (SVE) is a level of professional education, which aims to train practical specialists and mid-level employees for all industries. The training is carried out on the basis of basic secondary (after the 9th grade), complete secondary (after the 11th grade), or primary vocational education.

Today, there are 100 secondary vocational schools in the Russian part of the Baikal basin. In Mongolia, secondary vocational education is represented by 35 professional and technical schools.

Higher professional education (HPE) is a level of professional education, which aims to train specialists in any field of science on the basis of the complete secondary or secondary vocational education.

Higher professional education in the Russian territory of the Baikal basin is provided by 40 universities (state and private and their branches). In the Mongolian part, there are 29 state and 40 private universities, mostly located in the capital.

The scientific complex of the territory includes nine academic institutes of the Irkutsk Scientific Center SB RAS, five institutes of the East-Siberian Scientific Center SB RAMS, three research organizations SB RAAS, and over 30 applied research and design institutes. The system of academic science of the Republic of Buryatia includes the Buryat Scientific Center SB RAS (BSC SB RAS) and the Buryat Research Institute of Agriculture SB RAAS.

The university sector of scientific activities includes research divisions of four universities of the Republic. The scientific and innovation potential of Zabaikalsky krai is represented by the academic and university science. Currently, five academic and research institutions, including branches, operate in Zabaikalsky krai.

Mongolian Academy of Sciences was founded in 1961 in Ulaanbaatar on the basis of the Committee of Sciences (1921 to 1929 – Scientific Committee). Currently, it includes seven sections and over 60 research institutes, observatories, and research stations.

 

References

Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved from http://www.gks.ru

National Statistical Office of Mongolia. (2013). Soyol, sport, ayalal, zhuulchlalyn salbaryn lavlakh. Ulaanbaatar. p. 285.

National Statistical Office of Mongolia. (2012). Mongol ulsyn statistikiyn Emkhetgel. Ulaanbaatar.

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