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Genitourinary system diseases map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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Geosystems map

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Physical-geographical regionalization

and the landscape-typological structure

The materials presented uniformly consider physical-geographical regionalization and the landscape-typological structure of the Baikal basin. Map compilation was based on the idea of geosystems classification and the resultant works, including cartographic works on physical-geographical differentiation of the territory in the Russian Federation and Mongolia, which are presented below.

The boundaries of physical-geographical structures (individual and typological) were integrally positioned on the same topographic base in the Mapinfo environment and verified according to the Landsat 7 multispectral satellite images (2000).

The physical-geographical regionalization map reflects individual heterogeneous regional natural formations. The featured physical-geographical regions and provinces characterize the territories with a similar geographical location, manifestation of morphotectonic geological and geomorphological features, latitudinal, vertical and bioclimatic zonation. Physical-geographical regions, countries and provinces are comparable across different research. Mountain areas of North Asian mountain megalocation on the edge sphere of the continent (Baikal-Dzhugdzhurskaya and South-Siberian-Khangai-Khentei) and their contact with the Central Asian desert-steppe region of the Central continental megalocation are presented within this territory. Intraregional differentiation into provinces is related to the specific manifestations of altitudinal differences and geological and geomorphological features in mosaics of geosystem types and their mobile components of soils and vegetation. The map shows three physical-geographical areas and 12 provinces.

Landscape-typological structure shows the features of spatial mosaic of individual physical-geographical units, their internal structure of relatively homogeneous combinations of physical-geographical conditions. In accordance with the small scale, 39 geom groups are shown on the map. The geoms are distinguished according to the indicators of topological order, but generalized to the regional level [Sochava, 1978]. They combine topogeosystems of the certain zone or belt (within a physical-geographical region) characterized by similar structural features of soil cover, vegetation and hydrothermal regime. The vegetational component of a geom is adequate to a formation, soil one is close to the subtype of soils, and the climate regime is close to the modification of climate of a subzone, which arose under the influence of the structural properties of other components.

Geosystems specific to North and Central Asia form the regional classification range. Their location, interpenetration and uniqueness of landscape situations in the Baikal basin are presented. Regional interpretation of landscape-typological units (geom groups on the geasystem map) characterizes their latitudinal and altitudinal differences, as well as shows their relation to various regional and typological complexes of natural conditions that may be disclosed in detail on a larger display scale of landscape structures and geosystem components.

Multiscale mosaic character of the natural-territorial structure determines the landscape complexity of the territory, the local "contrasts" of economic use, and specificity of different local options of development.

References

Sochava, V.B. (1978). Introduction to the Theory of Geosystems. Novosibirsk: Nauka . Sib. Otd., 320 p.

Sochava, V.B. and Timofeev, D.A. (1968). Physical-geographical regions of North Asia. In: Reports of the Institute of Geography of Siberia and the Far East, vol. 19, pp. 3-19.

Preobrazhensky, V.S., Fadeev, N.V., Mukhina, L.I., and Tomilov, G.M. (1959). Types of locality and natural zoning of the Buryat ASSR. Moscow: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 219 p.

Landscapes of the south of Eastern Siberia. 1:1500000 Map; Physical-geographical regionalization. 1:8 000 000 Map. (1977). Mikheev, V.S., Ryashin, V.A. with the participation of Bogoyavlenskaya, N.G., Vetrova, S.D., Dmitrienko, L.S., Zhitlukhina, T.I., Kosmakova, O.P., Krotova, V.M., Smirnova, D.A. Ed. by V.B. Sochava. Moscow: GUGK, 1977.

Mikheev, V.S. (1990). Physical-geographical regionalization. In: Nature and environment protection in the Baikal watershed basin. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Sib. Otd., pp. 21-29.

Mikheev, V.S. and Ryashin, V.A. (1967). Landscapes; Physical-geographical regionalization. In: Atlas of Transbaikalia. Moscow-Irkutsk: GUGK, pp.70-71, p. 76, text pp.172-173.

Batjargal, B., Mikheev, V.S., and Erdenechimeg, Zh. (1989). Landscapes (map 39, text p.103). Physical-geographical regionalization (map 45, text p.104). In: Atlas of Lake Khovsgol. Moscow: GUGK.

Fadeeva, N.V., Smirnova, E.V., and Tulgaa, Kh. (1989). Landscapes and natural zoning in the atlas of the MPR. In: The National Atlas of the Mongolian People's Republic (problematic and scientific content). Novosibirsk: Nauka. Sib. Otd., pp. 109-125.

Dash, D., Smirnova, E.L., Tulgaa, Kh., and Fadeeva, N.V. (1990). Landscapes and natural zoning. Maps 145, 146 (scale 1:3 000 000) text p. 83. In: The National Atlas of the MPR. GUGK SSSR, GUGK MPR.

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Groundwater map

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Groundwater

The map is based on generalizing materials of the Institute of the Earth's Crust, and the Geological Surveys of Buryatia, Chita and Irkutsk using hydrogeological maps of 1:5000000 [Atlas..., 1983] and 1:4500000 scales [National Atlas ..., 1990].

During mapping the method of mapping the main aquifers (hydrogeological formations) was applied. Aquifers are distinguished according to structural and hydrogeological features, the prevailing type of water-ermeability, and reservoir properties of rocks.

In the Baikal basin pore-edge waters, confined to loose unconsolidated sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age, have a wide distribution, as well as crack waters in all lithified metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks of different ages from the Archaean to the end of the Paleozoic - Mesozoic inclusive.

Hydrogeologically, the Baikal basin is a complex system of artesian basins and hydrogeological massifs. Artesian basins occupy intermontane depressions composed of loose rocks of the sedimentary cover and crystalline basement rocks. They are characterized by pore-edge waters of the zone of active water exchange and crack waters, often pressure waters, and foundation waters. Hydrogeological massifs are composed with crystalline rocks of mountain- folded frame and can accommodate crack waters of exogenous fissuring. Thickness of the zone of active water exchange does not exceed 100-150 m.

Most watered are karst carbonate rocks, as well as zones of tectonic dislocations, intersecting the cropping-out foundation or spread along the contacts of sedimentary-metamorphic rocks with igneous and metamorphic rocks. They are often traced by upward unloading both of cold and thermal waters.

References

Atlas of hydrogeological and engineering-geological maps of the USSR. Scale 1:5000000. (1983).

National Atlas of the Mongolian People's Republic, scale 1:4500000. (1990).

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