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Industry and Its environmental impact map

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Industrial and its impact on the environment

Today, economic activity significantly influences the environment, and the main impact factor is the industry. The higher the concentration of industrial facilities, the more extensive the area of environmental changes is. This can be seen in the Baikal basin. Any change in one of the areas of the environment is reflected in the other (lithosphere disturbances indirectly affect the surface water and groundwater regimes, predetermining the dust and gas pollution, etc.).

The map “Industry and its impact on the environment” presents the results of the research of the industrial impact on the environment in the Baikal basin. The object of the map is an industrial center, as it is one of the most common forms of the territorial organization of industrial production representing a local group of companies (within the boundaries of a settlement).

The map depicts industrial centers with symbols. The symbol’s size shows the total population, the inner sectors – industry branches, circled sectors – the dominant impact on the environmental components. The areas disturbed by the mining industry (open-pits, waste heaps, dumps, etc.) and emissions (for large settlements) are shown separately. The areas with a maximum impact on the environment are identified based on the analysis of the industry’s impact on different environments.

The research results make it possible to draw the following conclusions.

The maximum industry impact on the environment is registered in the Republic of Buryatia. The impact on the environment is observed in all its settlements. The areas of the maximum negative impact on all environments are the Zakamensky, Kyakhtinsky, Gusinoozersky, Nizhne-Selenginsky and Ulan-Ude industrial hubs.

Major industries have negative impacts, e.g. the fuel and energy, mining, pulp and paper, and food industries. The main pollutants are the Ulan-Ude Central Heating Power Plant (CHPP)-1, Aviation Plant, Locomotive Repair Plant, glass factory, Selenginsky Pulp and Cardboard Mill, as well as light and food industries. Large and medium-sized waste dumps of consumer and industrial waste also significantly damage the environment [Impact...].

In Zabaikalsky krai, there is a local impact on the environment by the electrical energy, mining, and food industries. The largest area of a negative impact on the environment is the Chita industrial hub, where the main polluters are fuel-and-energy companies (the Chita Thermal Power Plant (TPP)-1 and TPP -2), mechanical engineering and metalworking plants, and transportation.

Industrial development in the part of Irkutsk oblast included into the Baikal basin is rather weak with the exception of the towns of Baikalsk and Slyudyanka. Here, the main polluters are mining (marble mining), transportation, and energy companies. In Baikalsk, the main source of pollution – the Baikalsk Pulp and Paper Mill – is currently closed, but the consequences of its activities in the form of pollution of the adjacent portion of the lake and the huge volume of stockpiled solid wastes still remain. Fuel and energy companies and transportation still significantly contribute to the air pollution. The administrative center of Irkutsk oblast – Irkutsk – has been continuously listed as one of the most polluted cities. The main air pollutants in Irkutsk are vehicle exhaust gas (52% of emissions) and unfiltered thermal power supply (46% of emissions). Manufacturing is responsible for about 2% of all emissions. Under certain circulatory patterns, some portion of atmospheric pollutants from Irkutsk can get into the Baikal basin and the lake’s water area. Therefore, according to the environmental zoning, this city is included into the zone of atmospheric impact. Irkutsk Aviation Plant is the main source of wastewater discharge into the Angara river, while the Irkutsk Furniture Factory — into the Irkut river. However, this pollution does not get into the Baikal catchment area. A growing number of unauthorized landfill sites around the city represents a particular problem. In the Olkhon district, the major source of environmental pollution is recreational activity resulting in the problem associated with the disposal of solid waste.

In Mongolia, among the main areas of industrial impact on the environment are industrial centers, where the majority of population is concentrated and industrial enterprises are located (Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, Erdenet, etc.), as well as local mining areas and light industry companies (wool and leather processing). In Mongolia, the impact of industry on water resources is particularly acute. In the last 20 years, out of five thousand rivers and lakes 852 rivers and 1,131 lakes have dried up due to mining [Basayev]. In addition, intensive water pollution (water quality of Pollution Class 3-4) is observed in all selected areas and large industrial centers. The main water pollutants are oil products and phenols. Increased oxidation is also registered.

Uneven economic development of the territory is accompanied by an unequal impact on the environment. As a result, the most negative impact takes place in large industrial centers with a high concentration of industrial enterprises that are characterized by significant emissions of air pollutants and large-volume wastewater discharges. The natural resources potential of the area has determined the development of the mining industry, which poses the greatest risk of pollution by toxic substances from tailings ponds to the land and surface and groundwater.

 

References

The Information Portal Lake Baikal. Impact of economic activities on the environment. Retrieved from http://www.baikal-center.ru/books/element.php?ID=1387#

Basayev, S. Gold Rush in Mongolia hurts Lake Baikal. Buryatia.Asia. Retrieved from http://buryatia.asia/zolotodobyvayushhaya-promyshlennost-mongolii-udarila-po-ekologii-ozera-bajkal/

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Infectious and parasitic diseases map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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Injuries and toxications map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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