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Malignant neoplasms map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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Maximum runoff during the flood map

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Flow

The map “Mean annual flow” reflects the formation patterns of the water regime of the territory, which are determined by the properties of landscapes to transform atmospheric moisture into the runoff.

For a water body basin, the surface runoff is the total amount of water loss from the watershed landscapes. The runoff rate from landscape complexes is determined by solving the inverse problem, i.e. identification of the connection of flow rate at the main stream station of a catchment with the runoff from landscapes, occupying its area, and is calculated based on the equation Qj = ∑qi fij, where j is the index of the river basin, Qj is its runoff, L/s; qi is a modification of flow from the i-th landscape complex, L/s km2; fij is an area of the j-th basin occupied by the i-th landscape, km2. Long-term average runoff data for small and medium-sized rivers of theLake Baikal basin were used in calculations for the map construction [Long-term…, 1986, http://www.r-arcticnet.sr.unh.edu]. Characteristics of landscape components were obtained on the basis of the materials on landscape of the Baikal region [Landscapes…, 1977, Natural..., 2009, Landscapes…, 1990, Lysanova et al., 2009]. In accordance with the regional dimension, generalization degree is chosen at the geom level, and their average annual flow moduli are determined. The territory on the map is divided into regions according to five gradations of the module - from less than 1 to more than 10 L/s km2.

The catchment area of the lake covers a variety of landscape zones and altitudinal belts, which makes a great contrast between the runoff rates. The highest annual flow moduli are formed within the goletz and mountain-taiga landscapes. Steppe and forest-steppe areas are distinguished by the minimum runoff rates, and in the desert regions of Mongolia (the Selenga river basin) flow formation almost does not take place.

The maps of minimum and maximum flow were compiled based on the typological landscape classification represented on the map [Landscapes…, 1977]. In the course of investigation, landscapes of different types were generalized by identifying the most hydrologically informative properties (morphological characteristics, vegetation structure, altitudinal zonation, etc.). As a result, more than 200 landscapes were combined into sixteen types of natural complexes, and runoff rates were determined for them. The moduli of maximum snow runoff and minimum summer runoff were calculated as described above.

Areas with the highest runoff of floods are confined to the mountain ranges and systems with goletz open woodlands and mountain-taiga landscapes. The main areas, distinguished by formation of frequent and high floods are the Baikalsky Range on the north-eastern end of the lake; Barguzinsky Range, located in the south-eastern part of the catchment, and the Khamar-Daban, covering the south-western shore of Lake Baikal. The values of the maximum flow modification are shown in three gradations on the map, namely: less than 25, 25-70, and more than 100 L/s km2.

Features of formation of the minimum summer runoff in the Baikal basin are associated with the regime of atmospheric moisture, as well as with the effects of altitude and exposition. The calculations and analysis of the minimum summer runoff have shown a relatively high water yield in the low-flow period from high-mountain taiga landscapes and extremely low river flow formation in the central areas of the Selenga river catchment and in Priolkhonie, which are covered with light coniferous landscapes and steppe complexes on slopes and plains. The map shows the value of the minimum flow in three gradations, namely: less than 1.5, 3.0-5.0, and more than 5.0 L/s km2.

Landscape-hydrological mapping based on the quantitative characteristics of water yield of landscape complexes objectively reflects the hydrological organization of the territory.

References

Kuznetsova T.I. (2009). Map "Natural landscapes of the Baikal region and their use: purpose, structure, and content”.  T.I. Kuznetsova, A.R. Batuev, and A.V. Bardash. Geodeziya i kartografiya, , no 9, pp. 18-28.

Landscapes of southern East Siberia [Maps]: [physical map] (1977) / compiled and prep. for printing by factory no. 4 GUGK in 1976, authors: V.S. Mikheev and V.A. Ryashin. 1: 1 500 000, Moscow: GUGK, 1 map (4 sheets): col.

Landscapes [Maps] [physical map] / The National Atlas of the Mongolian People's Republic. / comp .and prep to print by GUGK in 1989, authors: B.M. Ishmuratov, K.N. Misevich, I.L. Savelyeva, et al.

Lysanova, G.I., Semenov, Yu.M., Shekhovtsov, A.I., and Sorokovoy, A.A. (2013). Geosystems of the Republic of Tuva. Geografiya i prirodnye resursy, no. 3, pp. 181-185.

Long-term data on the regime and surface water resources. The Baikal basin. (1986). Vol. 1, no. 14, Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 361 p.

A Regional, Electronic, Hydrographic Data Network For the Arctic Region. URL: http://www.r-arcticnet.sr.unh.edu

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Medical service density - Doctors map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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