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033. Vegetation map

Vegetation map

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GOLETZ (HIGH-MOUNTAIN) VEGETATION

MOUNTAIN TUNDRAS

PAN-ATLANTIC PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

South-Siberian formations

1. Stony tundras with the predominance of crustose lichens (species of genera Cetraria Ach., Cladonia Hill ex P. Browne, and Alectoria Ach.), in places with clumps of fruticose lichens and with sparse vegetation groups of Hierochloë alpina (Sw.) Roem. et Schult., Luzula confusa Lindeb., Saussurea congesta Turcz., on stony placers, comprised of granitoids in the upper parts of the goletz zone, combined with subshrub (Rhododendron aureum Georgi, Ledum palustre L., Dryas oxyodonta Juz.)-lichen (Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A.Massal., Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.) tundras on flat tracts, covered with fine detritus of shale rocks or gneiss with mountain arctic-tundra primitive soils

2. Moss-lichen (Aulacomnium turgidum (Wahlenb.) Schwägr., Dicranum elongatum Schleich. ex Schwägr., Cetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Ach.) tundras on stony sunlit slopes, combined with alpine-type small meadows (Ptilagrostis mongholica (Turcz. ex Trin.) Griseb., Festuca sphagnicola B.Keller, Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Fiori) on rubble-silt talus fans in places of deep snow banks

3. Mountain avens (Dryas oxyodonta Juz., D. punctata Juz.)-lichen (Flavocetraria cucullata (Bellardi) Kärnefelt et A.Thell) tundras on stony-rock-debris mountain ranges and convex sodded tracts with fine skeleton substrates, combined with crowberry (Empetrum sibiricum V.N.Vassil)-yernik (Betula rotundifolia Spach) communities on flat uplands with loose fine earth and in wide hollows of mountain slopes

4. Grass (Festuca ovina L., Carex ensifolia Turcz. ex Gorodk., Pedicularis oederi Vahl.)-lichen (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench.) tundras often with shrubs (Betula rotundifolia Spach., Rhododendron aureum Georgi, Salix glauca L.) on gentle slopes and well drained flat tracts with mountain-tundra humic gley soils, combined with subshrub (Empetrum sibiricum V.N.Vassil, Dryas oxyodonta Juz.)-moss (Cetraria laevigata Rass., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar et Vězda) tundras on concave tracts with peaty-gley soils

North-Mongolian formations

5. Lichen (species of genera Cladonia Hill ex P. Browne, Cetraria Ach., Alectoria Ach., Stereocaulon Schreb.) and moss (species of genera Aulacomnium Schwägr., Polythrichum Hedw., and others) tundras on mountain-tundra underdeveloped and destructive soils among stony placers and taluses in the goletz zone, combined with sedge, kobresia (Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Fiori, K. sibirica (Turcz. ex Ledeb.) Boeck.)-sedge (Carex melanantha C.A.Mey, C. macrogyna Turcz. ex Steud) and subshrub (Dryas oxyodonta Juz, Arctous alpina (L.) Niedenzu, Rhododendron aureum Georgi)-lichen (Cetraria laevigata Rass., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar et Vězda) tundras in high-mountain rigions on semi-sodded stony slopes with mountain-tundra humic-peaty-gley soils and on convex mountain slopes with mountain-tundra soddy and humic-soddy soils

 

PAN-PACIFIC phratry of formations

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

6. Stony tundras with the sparse lichen cover (Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Mass., реже with Cetraria nivalis (L.) Ach., C.cucullata (Bell.) Ach.) and singly occurring vegetation groups (Potentilla elegans Cham. et Schlecht., Sibbaldia procumbens L.) in the upper parts of the goletz zone with mountain arctic-tundra primitive soils

7. Lichen (Cetraria nivalis (L.) Ach., C.islandica (L.) Ach., C.chrysantha Tuck., C.cucullata (Bell.) Ach.) tundras in the upper parts of goletz plateaus on convex land forms with ledges of crystalline rocks, combined with mountain avens (Dryas punctata Juz., D. Incise Juz.)-lichen rock debris tundras on dry slopes with gravelly peaty-loamy soils

8. Grass (Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm., Carex globularis L., C. ensifolia Turcz. ex V.I. Krecz. , Hierochloe alpina (Sw.) Roem. et Schult.)-lichen (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench., C. sylvatica (L.) Hoffm., C. rangiferina (L.) Web.) dry tundras in the middle and lower parts of the goletz zone and in the subgoletz zone on slopes and placers with fine-earth peaty substrates, combined with subshrub (Empetrum sibiricum V.N.Vassil, Cassiope ericoides (Pallas) D.Don.)-Cladonia tundras and tracts of kobresia (Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Fiori) heathlands and high-mountain fescue (Festuca lenensis Drob.) steppes on flat summits and gentle concave slopes with mountain tundra-meadow soils

9. Subshrub (Ledum decumbens Small.)-moss (Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst., Racomitrium canescens (Hedw.) Brid.)-lichen (Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Web.) tundras on slopes with mountain-tundra humic-carbonate soils, combined with wet tundras (Carex tristis M. Bieb., Ledum palustre L., Aulacomnium turgidum (Wahl.) Schwaegr.) and nival small meadows (Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbe, Allium malyschevii N.V.Friesen) in saddles and microdepressions with mountain tundra-meadow soils

10. Subshrub (Vaccinium myrtilus L.)-bergenia (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch)-lichen (Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Fr., Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench., C.rangiferina (L.) Web.) tundras (heathlands), in places with golden rhododendron, Siberian dwarf pine and Middendorff’s dwarf birch on summit surfaces and convex stony slopes with mountain-meadow light loamy gravelly soils, combined with nival small meadows on flat and concave slopes with mountain-meadow loamy soils

11. Tundras turned to meadows (Festuca ovina L., Lycopodium alpinum L., Hierochloe alpina Roem. et Schult.) on sodded tracts of stony and rocky slopes, combined with alpine-type  small meadows (Anemone sibirica L., Oxytropis kusnetzovii Kryl.) on concave and flat surfaces with soddy mountain-meadow light loamy soils, as well as dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel) and yernik (Betula divaricata Ledeb.) vegetation on stony slopes with gravelly weakly-humic soils

MOUNTAIN (ALPINE-TYPE) MEADOWS AND HEATHLANDS

ALTAI-TIAN-SHAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

South-Siberian formations

12. Alpine-type (Trollius sajanensis (Malyschev) Sipliv., Aquilegia glandulosa Fischer ex Link) and subalpine-type (Geranium albiflorum Ledeb., Saussurea latifolia Ledeb.) meadows on flat sodded tracts on bottoms of kars and on gently sloping plots with mountain tundra-meadow soils, combined with shrubs vegetation (Betula rotundifolia Spach, Duschekia  fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar, Salix glauca L.) on flat and concave slopes with mountain-tundra peaty-gley soils

North-Mongolian formations

13. High-mountain cryophyte meadows and heathlands (Cerastium pseudosibiricum J.Mayer, Dryadanthe tetrandra (Bunge) Juz., Valeriana petrophylla Bunge) in the transition area from the goletz to subgoletz zone on valley bottoms and at the foot of slopes with mountain tundra-meadow soils, combined with sedge-kobresia, kobresia-sedge and waterlogged sedge (Carex macrogina Turcz. ex Steud., C. orbicularis Boott, C. bigelowii Torr.) meadows on mountain-meadow soddy-humic gleyic and cryogenic-meadow peaty-humic-gleyic soils

14. Kobresia (Kobresia bellardii (All.) Degl.) and sedge (Carex rupestris All., C. stenocarpa Turcz.)-kobresia meadows and heathlands on flat summits of ranges, gentle slopes of all aspects, and in bottoms of non-waterlogged hollows with mountain tundra-meadow soils, combined with stony-rock-debris placers and patches of high-mountain steppes (Kobresia simpliciuscula Mack., Ptilagrostis mongolica Griseb., Festuca supina Schur., F. brevifolia R. Br., F. sphagnicola B. Keller) on concave slopes and in wide bottoms of intermontane depressions with tundra-meadow rich humus soils           

 

TAIGA (BOREAL) VEGETATION

SUBGOLETZ SPARSE FORESTS AND SHRUBS VEGETATION

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

South-Siberian formations

Dark-coniferous (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb.,

Picea obovata Ledeb.) sparse forests

15. Spruce Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel) moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not.)-lichen (Cladonia mitis Sandst, Cetraria islsndica (L.) Ach., Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Hoffm.) sparse forests on flat saddles, concave surfaces and slopes to river valleys with mountain cryogenic-taiga soils, combined with stony tundras and placers on convex tracts with mountain-tundra soils

16. Siberian stone pine and larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.)-Siberian stone pine yernik (Betula rotundifolia Spasch) subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L.)-moss (Dicranum scoparium Hedw., Pleurozium achreberi (Brid.) Mitt.)-lichen (Cladonia turgida Hoffm., C.uliginosa (Ahti) Ahti) sparse forests on stony slopes and plateau-like rocky surfaces with mountain cryogenic-taiga soils, combined with grass-shrubs vegetation in microdepressions and sodded tracts with mountain-tundra soils

17. Siberian stone pine with spruce and larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel) cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Ledum palustre L.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G.) sparse forests on convex watersheds and steep slopes of different aspects with shallow rank nonpodzolized soils, combined with Siberian stone pine cowberry forests on gentle and planate tracts with cryogenic-taiga soils

18. Fir and spruce-fir sparse forests, in places with lanate birch (Betula lanata (Regel) V.N.Vassil.), with golden rhododendron (Rhododendron aureum Georgi) and dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel) tall-grass (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott, Athyriium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Anemone baicalensis Turcz., Bupleurum multinerve DC.) on stony slopes with mountain podzolic gravelly-sandy-loamy shallow soils, combined with tracts of subalpine-type meadows (Geranium krylovii Tzvelev, Aconitum baicalense Turcz. ex Rapaics, Carex aterrima Hoppe) in near-brooks habitats with mountain tundra-meadow soils

 

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) sparse forests

19. Larch and Siberian stone pine-larch yernik (Betula rotundifolia Spach, B. exilis Sukaczev, Salix glauca L.) grass (Festuca ovina L., Bistorta elliptica (Willd. ex Spreng.) Kom., Artemisia dolosa Krasch.)-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bruch et al., Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb.), in places with lichens (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh., C.rangiferina (L.) Web.), sparse forests on steep slopes, aprons and high river terraces with cryogenic-taiga peaty-gleyic soils, combined with larch marsh tea-cowberry sparse forests on less steep slopes with the same soils and patches of grass-lichen-moss tundras on convex well drained surfaces with mountain arctic-tundra sandy and sandy-loamy shallow soils

 

ANGARIDE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

Light-coniferous (Larix dahurica Laws.) sparse forests

20. Larch sparse forests with dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pal.) Regel), dwarf birch (Betula divaricata Ledeb.), in places with Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) moss (Dicranum elonganum Schleich. ex Schwaegr., Aulacomnium turgidum (Wahl.) Schwaegr., Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb.)-lichen (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench.) on planate surfaces and gentle stony slopes with mountain cryogenic-taiga surface-ferruginized soils, combined with shrubs (Benula nana L.) vegetation on convex and flat surfaces with fine skeleton soils and patches of alpine-type small meadows (Anemone sibirica L., Aquilegia glandulosa Fisch. ex Link, Festuca altaica Trin.) on sodded tracts on bottoms of kars and concave slopes with mountain-meadow soddy-humic light loamy soils

BERINGIAN phratry of formations

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

Dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel) vegetation

21. Dwarf Siberian mountain pine vegetation with singly occurring trees (Larix dahurica Laws., Pinus sibirica Du Tour., Betula lanata (Regel) V.N.Vassil.) on slopes with coarse stony substrates and stony-rank immature soils, combined with subshrub (Cassiope ericoides (Pall.) D.Don, Ribes fragrans Pall.) and meadow (Festuca altaica Trin., Dracocephalum grandiflorum L., Aquilegia glandulosa Fisch. ex Link) communities in microrelief lows with mountain tundra-meadow soils

MOUNTAIN-TAIGA FORESTS

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Middle-Siberian formations

Dark-coniferous (Abies sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sibirica Du Tour, and Picea obovata Ledeb.) forests

22. Fir-Siberian stone pine subshrub (Ledum palustre L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Vaccinium uliginosum L.)-grass (Pyrola rotundifolia L., Linnaea borealis L., Carex macroura Meinsh., in places with tall grass - Valeriana alternifolia Ledeb., Silene amoena L., Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) Beauv., Trollius asiaticus L., Pulmonaria mollis Wulfen ex Hornem.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Hylocomium splendens Bruch et al.) forests on summits and slopes of  high watersheds with coarse-skeleton soddy-podzolic soils

22d. Larch-pine with Siberian stone pine and fir subshrub-grass-true-moss anthropogenic series

 

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) forests

23. Larch and pine-larch cowberry-forb (Saussurea controversa D.C., Polygala sibirica L., Scabiosa ochroleuca L., Carex macroura Meinsh., Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth.) forests on slopes of different steepness with soddy-forest weakly podzolic or soddy-carbonate leached soils

24. Larch with the inclusion of Siberian stone pine and spruce, in places with undergrowth of yernik (Betula fruticosa Pallas) subshrub (Ledum palustre L., Vaccinium uliginosum L.)-moss forests in the lower parts of slopes of different aspects, in weakly waterlogged river terraces, drained creek valleys and in river valleys with podzolic deeply-freezing or seasonally-cryogenic soils

South-Siberian formations

Dark-coniferous (Abies sibirica Ledeb., Picea obovata Ledeb.,

Pinus sibirica Du Tour) forests

25. Siberian stone pine-fir bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)-grass (Equisetum sylvaticum L., Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray, Trientalis europaea L., Carex iljinii V. Krecz.)-true-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., Polytrichum commune Hedw.) forests in interfluves on heads of watersheds and upper parts of slopes with podzolic sandy-loamy and light loamy soils

25a. Aspen-birch with fir and Siberian stone pine bilberry-grass-true-moss

anthropogenic series

25c. Larch with Siberian stone pine, fir, birch bilberry-grass-

true-moss anthropogenic series

26. Siberian stone pine-fir with spruce and larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)-bergenia (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch)-true-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., Polytrichum commune Hedw.) forests in the upper parts of the forest zone on convex surfaces, steep stony shady slopes and slopes to river valleys with weakly podzolic gravelly soils

27. Fir-Siberian stone pine with spruce bilberry-small grass (Mitella nuda L., Trientalis europaea L., Stellaria bungeana Fenzl.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hegw.) De Not.), in places with bergenia (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch), forests on convex surfaces and steep stony slopes with shallow gravelly-loamy moistened soils

27a. Aspen-birch with Siberian stone pine and fir bilberry-small grass-

true-moss anthropogenic series

27c. Pine-larch with Siberian stone pine, fir, birch, aspen bilberry-

small grass-true-moss anthropogenic series

28. Siberian stone pine with undergrowth of golden rhododendron (Rhododendron aureum Georgi) bilberry-cowberry-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Dicranum congestum Brid.), in places with bergenia, forests on mountain ranges and their slopes with humic weakly podzolized moderately loamy soils

28а. Siberian stone pine-birch with undergrowth of golden rhododendron

bilberry-cowberry-true-moss anthropogenic series

28c. Larch with Siberian stone pine with undergrowth of golden rhododendron

bilberry-cowberry-true-moss anthropogenic series

29. Siberian stone pine with larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) (in places with fir and spruce) subshrub (Vaccinium myrtillus L., Ledum palustre L.)-grass (Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Tritsch, Carex iljinii V. Krecz. in places with tall grass)-true-moss forests on gentle shady slopes, saddles, and in intermontane depressions with cryogenic-taiga peaty-gley and peaty-weakly podzolic soils

30. Siberian stone pine with the inclusion of spruce and larch marsh tea-cowberry-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) forests in the middle and the upper parts of steep sunlit slopes with soddy-forest brown-colored shallow fresh soils, in places combined with bergenia Siberian stone pine woodlands, on narrow crests of watersheds and their steep stony slopes with podzolic coarse-skeleton soils

30c. Larch with Siberian stone pine Marsh tea-cowberry-true-moss,

in places with bergenia, anthropogenic series

31. Siberian stone pine-spruce with larch, in places fir-spruce with Duschekia and wild ash in the underwood, subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V.myrtilus L., Rubus arcticus L.)-grass (Linnaea borealis L., Pyrola rotundifolia L., Equisetum palustre L., Goodyera repens (L.) R. Br., Lusula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Polytrichum commune Hedw.) forests in the lower parts of gentle undulating shady slopes, intermontane depressions and on slopes to river valleys with loamy and peaty-humic wet soils

32. Spruce with larch, in places with poplar (Populus suaveolens Fischer, P. laurifolia Ledeb.), grass (Сalamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, C. langsdorffii (Link) Trin., Delfinium elatum L., Viola uniflora L., Vicia cracca L., Orthilia secunda L. Garcke., Sanguisorba officinalis L.)-subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L.) forests in waterlogged valleys of brooks and rivers with peat-bog deeply freezing soils

33. Poplar (Populus suaveolens Fischer)-fir with spruce tall-grass (Solidago dahurica Kitag., Calamagrostis obtusata Trin, Hieracium umbellatum L., Agrostis stolonifera L.) forests along rivers on channel deposits, in creek valleys, wide concave depressions with deep sandy-loamy-humic soils

33а. Fir-birch with poplar and spruce tall-grass anthropogenic series

 

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb, Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

34. Larch with undergrowth of small-leaved rhododendron (Rhododendron parvifolium Adams) and round-leaved birch (Betula rotundifolia Spach)-grass (Pedicularis verticillata L., Delfinium crassifolium Schrad. ex Spreng., Carex amgunensis F.Schmidt)-moss (Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb) forests on planate surfaces, rather steep sunlit slopes and on slopes of mountain valleys with soddy-carbonate leached soils

35. Siberian stone pine-larch and larch with Siberian stone pine cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Ledum palustre L., Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm.) forests on gentle slopes and aprons of different aspects, as well as on terraces of different levels with soddy-forest weakly podzolic loamy and sandy-loamy fresh soils

35а. Larch-birch cowberry anthropogenic series

36. Larch and pine-larch with undergrowth of rhododendron (Rhododendron dauricum L., реже Rh. ledebouri Pojark.) marsh tea-cowberry-true-moss forests on planate surfaces and slopes of different aspects with weakly podzolic sandy-loamy cryogenic soils

36а. Birch with larch and pine with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron

marsh tea-cowberry-true-moss anthropogenic series

37. Pine and larch-pine with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron (Rhododendron dauricum L.) and fruticose Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) grass (Geum aleppicum Jacq., Crepis praemorsa (L.) Tausch, Euphorbia jenisseiensis Baikov., Crepis praemorsa (L.) Tausch, Anemone crinita Juz., Saussurea controversa D.C.) forests on gentle slopes in the middle and lower parts of the forest zone, in intermontane depressions, and on slopes of different aspects to river valleys with soddy weakly podzolic soils

37а. Birch with larch and pine with undergrowth of rhododendron and

Duschekia grass anthropogenic series

 

North-Mongolian formations

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

38. Siberian stone pine-larch grass (Linnaea borealis L., Vicia baicalensis (Turcz.) B.Fedtsch., Calamagrostis obtusata Trin.)-subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L.)-true-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) forests in the upper parts of the forest zone on planate surfaces and the upper parts of slopes with peaty-weakly podzolic cryogenic soils

39. Larch with Siberian stone pine subshrub (Ledum palustre L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)-bergenia (Bergenia crassifolia Trisch)-true-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bruch et al., Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. ) forests on shady slopes, aprons, high terraces with soddy deeply-cryogenic shallow soils

40. Larch with spruce, Siberian stone pine, less often fir with undergrowth of rhododendron (Rhododendron dahuricum L.), cowberry-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) forests on steep stony slopes often to river valleys with soddy shallow rank soils

41. Larch forb-Rhytidium and sedge-Rhytidium (Festuca altaica Trin., Carex amgunensis Fr. Schmidt, Pedicularis verticillata L., Delphinium crassifolium Schrader ex Sprengel, Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb.) forests of the middle and lower parts of shady slopes with soddy nonpodzolized, humic and peaty soils

42. Larch (in places with pine) with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron cowberry-grass (Сarex iljinii V.I.Krecz., Maianthemum bifolium (L.)F.W.Schmidt, Equisetum arvense L.) forests in the middle and lower parts of predominantly shady slopes and on slopes to river valleys with soddy taiga deeply-cryogenic deep soils

43. Pine, in places birch-pine, with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron forb с and cowberry-forb (Pyrola chlorantha Swartz, Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W. Schmidt, Trientalis europaea L.) forests on mountain slopes with soddy-forest, in places with weakly podzolic soils

 

ANGARIDE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

Light-coniferous (Larix dahurica Laws., Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

44. Larch with undergrowth of dwarf Siberian mountain pine and golden rhododendron (Rhododendron aureum Georgi) small grass (Carex iljinii V. Krecz., Linnaea borealis L., Calamagrostis obtusata Trin.)-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.)-lichen (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench, C. mitis Sandst.) forests in the upper parts of the forest zone and subgoletz on convex surfaces and steep slopes of different aspects with peaty-humic acid длительно cryogenic loamy soils

45. Larch, in places sparse, with undergrowth of dwarf Siberian mountain pine (Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel), marsh tea (Ledum palustre L.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Polytrichum commune Hedw.) forests in the upper parts of the forest zone on watershed surfaces and stony slopes of different steepness and aspects, often on slopes of river valleys with loamy stony soils 

46. Larch with undergrowth of yernik (Betula  middendorffii Trautv. et Mey.) and Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Ledum palustre L.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) forests in the middle and lower parts of stony slopes of different aspects, on watershed surfaces and on slopes to river valleys with loamy cryogenic soils, in places with crystalline rock debris

47. Larch with undergrowth of Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) cowberry-grass (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Calamagrostis lapponica Hartm., Carex cespitosa L., Equisetum palustre L.) forests in the middle and lower parts of gentle predominantly shady slopes with soddy-podzolic soils

47a. Birch with undergrowth of Duschekia cowberry-grass anthropogenic series

48. Larch subshrub (Vaccinium uliginosum L., Ledum palustre L.)-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Polytrichum commune Hedw.) forests on weakly waterlogged river terraces and aprons of slopes with peaty-gley alluvial cryogenic soils

49. Larch with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron (Rhododendron dahuricum L.) grass-cowberry-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Carex iljinii V.I. Krecz., C. globularis L., Linnaea borealis L.) forests on planate surfaces, in the middle and lower parts of slopes and drained tracts of valleys with soddy-podzolic soils

50. Larch with undergrowth of yernik (Betula middendorfii Trautv. et Mey., B. exilis Sukaczev) forests, in places sparse, on waterlogged tracts of above-floodplain terraces and mountain creek valleys with peaty-slimy-gley soils, combined with spruce-larch and larch-spruce forests in the lower parts of gentle slopes of different aspects with peat wet soils

51. Larch with undergrowth of yernik (Betula fruticosa Pall., B. middendorffii Trautv. et Mey.) waterlogged forests in the middle and lower parts of gentle and concave slopes and valleys of rivers and brooks with peaty-bog soils, combined with yerniks vegetation and grass-moss (Tomenthypnum nitens (Hedw.) Loeske, Tuidium abietinum (Schwaegr.) Dr. Sch. et Gmb., Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb., Carex dioica L., C. limosa L., Caltha palustris L., Equisetum fluviatila L., Cicuta virosa L., Epilobium palustre L.) bogs in waterlogged floodplains of streams and gentle slopes to river valleys with peat sphagnous-bog shallow wet soils

52. Larch-pine with undergrowth of Daurian rhododendron (Rhododendron dahuricum L.) cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)-forb (Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Geranium pseudosibiricum J. Meyer, Viola uniflora L.) forests in the upper and middle parts of slopes of different aspects with moderately podzolic soils

53. Larch-pine with undergrowth of Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) and Middendorff's birches (Betula middendorffii Trautv. et Mey., B. exilis Sukaczev) bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. with the inclusion of V. vitis-idaea L., Ledum palustre L.)-true-moss (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.) forests on flat summits of low ranges and on their slopes with moderately podzolic heavy loamy soils

54. Larch-spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) with Chosenia (Chosenia arbutifolia (Pall.) A.K.Skvortsov) and poplar (Populus suaveolens Fischer) subshrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Ledum palustre L.)-forb (Galium boreale L., Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., Trollius asiaticus L., Thalictrum minus L, Linnaea borealis L., Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt.)-true-moss (Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bruch et al., Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Dicranum undulatum Schrad. ex Drid., Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hegw.) De Not) forests on pebble-beds along river channels and on floodplains with soddy-podzolic sandy-loamy soils

 

PIEDMONT-DEPRESSION FORESTS

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

South-Siberian formations

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb, Pinus sylvestris L.) forests

55. Larch and pine-larch small reed-forb (Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, C. epigeios (L.) Roth s. str., C. langsdorffii (Link) Tzvelev, Serratula coronata L., Euphorbia borealis Baikov., Stellaria graminea L., Carex pallida C.A.Meyer) forests in the lower parts of southern slopes with soddy forest soils, in places combined with steppizated grass larch woods and tracts of steppes, on sunlit low slopes and planate surfaces with rank and stony soils

56. Pine with undergrowth of spiraea (Spiraea media Franz Schmidt), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. ex Blytt.), prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis Lindley) grass (Pulsatilla patens (L.) Miller, Artemisia desertorum Sprengel.) steppizated forests on sunlit slopes with sandy skeleton-stony soils, combined with steppe formations on the upper parts of waterless creek valleys with sandy-loamy soils and tracts of blown sands

56a. Pine-birch grass series of anthropogenic transformation.

57.Pine and larch-pine cowberry-bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel) with patches of lichens (Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabench., C. amaurocreae (Flörke) Schaer, Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Web.) forests on gentle sandy sunlit slopes and planate surfaces with rank shallow soils

 

ANGARIDE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

Light-coniferous (Larix dahurica Laws.) forests

58. Larch with undergrowth of fruticose willows (Salix lanata L., S. rosmarinifolia L., S. pyrolifolia Ledeb.) sedge (Carex diandra Schrank, C. meyeriana Kunth, C. capitata L., C. irriqua (Wahlenb.) Hiitonen)-moss (Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwägr.,  Sphagnum warnstorfii Russow, Sph. teres (Schimp.) Engstr., Tomenthypnum nitens (Hedw.) Loeske) waterlogged forests in lower tracts of valleys with peaty cryogenic soils

SUBTAIGA (PIEDMONT) FORESTS

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Middle-Siberian formations

Light-coniferous (Pinus sylvestris L., Larix sibirica Ledeb.) forests

59. Pine and larch-pine with undergrowth of rhododendron (Rhododendron dauricum L.) cowberry-grass (Vaccinium vitis idaea L., Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., Aquilegia sibirica Lam., Limnas steleri Trin., Cypripedium guttatum Sw., Vicia cracca L., Trifolium lupinaster L.) forests on planate surfaces and sunlit slopes with soddy forest and podzolic sandy and sandy-loamy soils, combined with cowberry-bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.) forests on dry sandy terraces and low slopes with sandy well-heated soils

60. Pine and larch-pine grass (Saussurea propinqua Iljin, Latthyrus humilis (Ser.) Spreng., Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt, Aegopodium alpestre Ledeb., Carex pediformis C.A.M.)-cowberry forests on flat lows and slopes of different aspects with soddy-forest weakly podzolic soils, combined with gramineous (Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) Beauv., Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth)-forb (Zigadenus sibiricus (L.) A.Gray, Euphorbia borealis Baikov., Stellaria graminea L., Euphorbia jenisseiensis Baikov., Cirsium serratuloides (L.) Hill.) forests on planate surfaces and gentle low slopes often to river valleys with soddy-forest and soddy-carbonate soils

61. Pine and larch-pine with undergrowth of Duschekia (Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar) cowberry-forb (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth., Viola uniflora L., Galium boreale L., Trollius asiaticus L., Sanguisorba officinalis L.) often with marsh tea (Ledum palustre L.) and whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) forests in the lower parts and on aprons of slopes, as well as along river banks with peaty-podzolic sandy-loamy soils

61b. Birch-aspen with pine and larch cowberry-forb with

marsh tea and whortleberry anthropogenic series

YERNIKS, BOGS AND MEADOWS

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Middle-Siberian formations

62. Subshrub (Vaccinium uliginosum L., Chamedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench)–sedge (Carex meyeriana Kunth)-hypnum (Drepanocladus vernicosus Warnst., D. sendtneri (H.Muell.) Warnst., Meesia triquetra (Richter) Aongstr.) bogs on overmoistened tracts are often enclosed by peat bogs, combined with marsh tea-moss pine forests, in floodplain depressions with peaty wet soils and sedge meadows in interior deltas on more drained tracts of bogs with silt deposits and light loamy soils

 

ANGARIDE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Baikal-Dzhugdzhur formations

63. Yernik (Betula fruticosa Pallas, B. exilis Sukaczev) vegetation with singly occurring larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) and birch trees (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) in valleys and floodplains of rivers and brooks and lower tracts with peaty soils, combined with grass bogs in low floodplains and sedge-small reed meadows on river banks, along-channel natural levees and on gentle slopes to river valleys with loamy moist soils

64. Sphagnum (Sphagnum warnstorffii Russ., S. teres (Schimp.) Aongstr. ex Hartm.) oligotrophic bogs in river floodplains, on gentle poorly drained slopes of ouvals, in saddles, in the upper reaches of brooks and creek valleys, on low flat watersheds and summits of столовых возвышенностей with overmoistened soils and permafrost, combined with willow (Salis viminalis L., S.rosmarinifolia L., S.triandra L.) vegetation in the along-channel parts of rivers with грубыми sandy отложениями

65. Small reed-sedge and sedge (Carex pseudocuraica Fr. Schmidt, C. wiluica Meinsh., C. enervis C.A.M.)-small reed (Calamagrostis langsdorffii Trin.) valley overmoistened meadows on peaty-gley cryogenic soils, in places combined with shrubs vegetation (Rosa acicularis Lindl., Spiraea salicifolia L., Betula exilis Sukaczev, Salis rosmarinifolia L.) on summits of along-channel natural levees and low ridges of the central floodplains with sandy-loamy and loamy soils

 

FOREST-STEPPE COMPLEXES

Mountain

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

North-Mongolian formations

Light-coniferous (Larix sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sylvestris L.) steppizated forests

with tracts of steppes

66. Complex of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev)-larch grass (Calamagrostis obtusata Trin., Carex amgunensis Fr. Schmidt, Iris ruthenica Ker-Gawler s str., Paeonia anomala L., Lilium pumilum Delile, Anemone crinita Juz.) steppizated forests and forb-sedge-oat-grass steppes predominantly on shady slopes with meadow-forest глубоко cryogenic soils

67. Complex of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev)-pine xerophytic-forb (Festuca lenensis Drob., Artemisia frigida Willd., A. laciniata Drob., Oxytropis oligantha Bunge, O. chionophylla Schrenk) steppizated forests and shrubs (Ulmus pumila L., Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. ex Blytt) vegetation on planate surfaces, mountain slopes and river terraces with weakly podzolic sandy soils  

 

Piedmont

URAL-SIBERIAN PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Middle-Siberian formations

Light-coniferous (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests with tracts of steppes

68. Complex of pine steppizated sparse-grass (Scabiosa ochroleuca L., Dracocephalum nutans L., Silene nutans L., Elymus gmelinii (Ledeb.) Tzvelev, Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Rhot.) forests and steppe formations on convex surfaces, dry pine-forest terraces, lower watersheds and their gentle slopes with fine sandy-loamy or loamy soils

STEPPE VEGETATION

STEPPES OF MOUNTAINS

MONGOLIAN-CHINESE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

DRY STEPPES

South-Siberian formations

69. Kobresia (Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Fiori, K. humilis Meadow.)-fescue (Festuca lenensis Drobow) high-mountain steppes on convex surfaces and stony-rock debris slopes with mountain steppe carbonate-free soils, combined with moss-lichen and lichen-moss tundras on flat lows with tundra peaty-gley soils   

North-Mongolian formations

70. Forb-bunchgrass (Festuca lenensis Drobow, F. sibirica Hackel ex Boss., Poa attenuata Trin., Koeleria cristata subsp. mongolica Tzvelev, Carex pediformis C.A.Meyer, Stellera chamaejasme L., Alyssum lenense Adams, Oxytropis nitens Turcz., Phlojodicarpus sibiricus Koso-Pol.,) with shrubs (Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. ex Blytt., Ribes pulchellum Turcz., Pentaphylloides parvifolia (Fischer ex Lehm.) Sojak) steppes on high planate tracts and in the upper parts of slopes of different aspects with mountain chernozems and dark-chestnut soils, combined with forb-fescue and sedge-fescue steppe communities on gravelly-stony and stony-rock debris slopes

71. Forb-Leymus-feather-grass (Stipa capillata L., S. krylovii Roshev., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvelev, Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd., Galium verum L., Aconogonon angustifolium (Pallas) Hara, Oxytropis filiformis DC., Astragalus melilotoides Pallas) steppes on high plains, on sunlit slopes, in steppizated river valleys on low ridges and pebble-beds with dark-chestnut light loamy soils with the feaures of meadow soils in combination with birch (Betula platyphtlla Sukaczev) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) grass (Fragaria orientalis Losinsk., Geranium pseudosibiricum J.Meyer, Campanula glomerata L. s.str., Valeriana dubia Bunge, Vicia unijuga A. Br.) steppizated forests on northern slopes with soddy-forest and meadow-forest deeply cryogenic soils

Central-Asian formations

72. Forb-fescue and forb (Rhinactinidia eremophylla (Bunge) Novopokr. s. str., Peucedanum morisonii Besser ex Sprengel, Dracocephalum foetidum Bunge, Oxytropis oligantha Bunge, Saussurea sajanensis Gudoschn., Potentilla fragarioides L.)-wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv.)-fescue (Festuca lenensis Drobow) steppes on summits of watersheds and ranges with parent rock outcrops and in the upper parts slopes with mountain steppe carbonate-free soils, combined with kobresia and sedge steppes in depressions, along river valleys and creek valleys with clay soils

73. Forb (Carex pediformis C.A.Mey, Aster alpinus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Galium verum L.)-gramineous (Festuca valesiaca Gaudin s. str., Poa attenuate Trin. s. str.) steppes on stony slopes of different aspects, comprised of quartz-clay sandstones, combined with forb-Koeleria and fescue-Leymus steppe groups on dry slopes with light-chestnut and rank soils

74. Forb (Serratula centauroides L. s. str., Astragalus brevifolius Ltdeb., Cleistogenes squarrosa (Nrin.) Keng, Asterothamnus heteropappoides Novopokr., Vincetoxicum sibiricum (L.) Decne)-gramineous (Agropyron criststum (L.) Beauv.)-feather-grass (Stipa glareosa P. Smirnov, S. krylovii Roshev) with shrubs (Krascheninnikowia ceratoides (L.) Gueldenst., Caragana bungei Ledeb.) desert steppes on rock debris slopes, among rocks, in intermontane valleys and slopes with sandy-loamy and rank-sandy-loamy soils

MEADOW STEPPES

North-Mongolian formations

75. Rich-forb-sedge-bluegrass (Poa attenuate Trin., P. altaica Trin., Festuca lenensis Drobov, Carex pediformis C.A.Mey, Filifolium sibiricum (L.) Kitam., Scabiosa comosa Fisch. ex Roem.et Schult.) meadow steppes, combined with forb-gramineous meadow-steppe communities on planate surfaces, gentle sunlit slopes and in intermontane valleys with mountain chernozems and dark-chestnut  soils

STEPPES OF FOOTHILLS, PLATEAUS AND HUMMOCKS

TRANS-VOLGA-Kazakhstan PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

MEADOW STEPPES

Middle-Siberian formations

 

76. Complex of saz (Leymus paboanus (Claus) Pilger, Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski) and Nitraria-sagebrush steppes with halophytic (Plantago cornuti Gounan, Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) Kuntze) meadows on shores of salt lakes, in the near-terrace part of steppe valleys, saline bottoms of waterless creek valleys and microdepressions with meadow carbonate alkali soils

 

MONGOLIAN-CHINESE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

DRY STEPPES

Central-Asian formations

77. Feather-grass (Stipa krylovii Roshev., S. baikalensis Roshev., S. grandis P.Smirn.) steppes on planate tracts, gentle slopes, piedmont aprons with sandy-loamy soils, as well as on solonetzic heavy-textured soils and on deluvium of limestones and carbonate rocks, combined with wheatgrass, Leymus and leistogenes communities, in places with patches of allium polyrrhizum steppes in the same habitats with light-textured soils

78. Leymus (Leymus chinensis Tzvel.) steppes on planate and hilly tracts with sandy or solonetzic soils, combined with Koeleria-fescue communities and patches of halophytic (Puccinelia tenuiflora Krecz., P. macranthera Norlindh.) meadows on gentle sunlit slopes and on bottoms waterless creek valleys with sandy and sandy-loamy soils

79. Filifolium (Filifolium sibiricum (L.) Kitam.) steppes on slopes and plateau-like summit surfaces, comprised of quartz-clay sandstones, combined with steppe shrubs vegetation and steppizated meadows in the upper parts gentle slopes with drift sandy and sandy-loamy soils

80. Pea shrub (Caragana microphylla Lam., C. stenophylla Pojark.)-Leymus-feather-grass (Stipa baikalensis Roshev., S. grandis P.Smirn.), in places feather-grass-pea shrub steppes on gentle slopes and ouvals with loose chestnut and light sandy-loamy soils, combined with feather-grass and cleistogenes communities on sandy slopes and high above-floodplain terraces

81. Forb-feather-grass (Stipa klemenzii Roshev., S. sibirica (L.) Lam., Artemisia frigida Willd., A. scoparia Waldst.end Kit., Cymbaria dahurica L., Veronica pinnata L., and others) and gramineous-feather-grass (Stipa krylovii Roshev., Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv., Festuca valesiaca Gaudin, Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng, Leymus chinensi (Trin.) Tzvelev), in places shrub (Caragana microphylla (Pall.) Lam., C. Bungei Ledeb., C. pigmaea (L.) DC.,   C. stenophylla Pojark. On rare occasions - Spiraea hypericifolia L.) steppes on planate surfaces and gentle slopes of hummocks and hills with light sandy-loamy and light loamy soils, combined with forb-fescue, Leymus and cleistogenes steppe communities on rocky and stony surfaces

MEADOW STEPPES

South-Siberian formations

82. Wheatgrass, feather-grass-wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv., Stipa krylovii Roshev.) in places forb-fescue-wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, Festuca lenensis, Artemisia argirophylla, Oxytropis chionophylla) with kobresia (Kobresia humilis) steppes on steep stony sunlit slopes, on aprons of mountains and in wide lows with light-textured soils, combined with Koeleria and tall-grass (Serratula centauroides L., Scabiosa comosa Fischer ex Roemer et Schultes) steppes on gentle slopes and bottoms of depressions with good soil moistening with sandy-loamy and steppe carbonate-free soils

83. Fescue (Festuca lenensis Drobov) and bluegrass (Poa botrioides (Griseb.) Roschev) in places mixed small-bunchgrass with forbs (Kobresia filifolia, Oxytropis oligantha, O. chionophylla, Saussurea saichanensis, Potentilla nivea) steppes on slopes and on bottoms of depressions with dark-chestnut and steppe carbonate-free soils, combined with steppe shrubs vegetation (Cotoneaster melanocarpus Fisch. ex Blytt, Spiraea media, S.pubescens, Ribes diacantha), kobresia (Cobresia filifolia (Turcz.) Clarke) and sedge meadows (Carex pediformis C.A.Meyer) on stony slopes and rocks with clay soils

84. Pea shrub (Caragana micriphylla Lam., C. pygmaea D C.)-wild rye (Leymus secalinus (Georgi) Tzvelev)-wheatgrass (Agropyrum michnoi Roshev.) steppes on blown sands and sandy soils, combined with thyme and fescue communities, as well as elm (Ulmus pumila L.) woods on slopes, rocks and cliffs with arid sandy-stony soils

85. Sagebrush (Artemisia frigida Willd.) and low-grass (Chamaerhodes altaica Bge., Arctogeron gramineum D C., Arenaria capillaries Poir., and others) lithophilous steppes on steep sunlit slopes and planate surfaces with stony-rank soils, combined with fescue and petrophyte-forb-small-bunchgrass (Stipa krylovii, Festuca lenensis, Agropyron cristatum, Krylovia eremophylla, Agropyron cristatum, Allium eduardii, Potentilla sericea, Arenaria meyeri Peucedanum histris, Dracocephalum foetidum) groups on rocks and taluses

 

MEADOWS AND HYDROPHILOUS COMMUNITIES

TRANS-VOLGA-Kazakhstan PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

Middle-Siberian formations

86. Sedge (Carex enervis C.A.Meyer)-gramineous (Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link)-forb (Iris biglumis Vahl) alkaline meadows in the near-terrace and central parts of floodplains with saline soils, comprised of fine fractions of alluvium

87. Sedge-gramineous predominantly alkaline meadows (Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link., Agrostis mongolica Roshev., Puccinellia tenuiflora (Griseb.) Scribner et Merr.) in kettle depressions of salt lakes, on natural levees and along-channel floodplains, comprised of alluvium of coarse fractions, combined with sedge bogs and willow stands (Salix dahurica Turcz., S. rossica Nas.) in lower tracts of floodplains with waterlogged peaty soils

MONGOLIAN-CHINESE PHRATRY OF FORMATIONS

South-Siberian formations

88. Low-grass partially steppizated meadows (Agrostis trinii Turcz., Carex pediformis C.A.M., Kobresia filifolia Meinsc.) in river valleys on flat and wide low ridges, as well as on bottoms of creek valleys with floodplain-meadow sandy-loamy and loamy soils, combined with yernik (Betula gmelinii Bge.) vegetation on sides of ravines and banks of streams and kobresia-fescue steppes on higher tracts of floodplains with pebble and sand deposits

89. Gramineous (Leymus chinensis Tzvel., Carum buriaticum Turcz., Coeleria cristata (L.) Pers.s.str., Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng, Agropyron repens) and forb (Geranium pretense, Sanguisorba officinalis, Valeriana oficinalos, Trifolium lupinaster, Orostachys spinosa, Thymus dahuricus)-gramineous steppizated meadows with poplar (Populus suaveolens Fish.) and willow shrubs (Salix rorida Laksch.) in river floodplains and on along-channel pebble-beds with saline soils

90. Grass (Leymus secalinus Tzve, Poa pretensis L., Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, Agrostis mongolica Roshev., Bromus sekalinus L, Sanguisorba officinalis L., Medicago falcata L.) meadows with shrubs (Salix microstachya Turcz., Hippophae rhamnoides L., Ulmus pumila L.) and sigly occuring poplar trees (Populus laurifolia Ledeb.) on sufficiently moistened tracts of large rivers and in the mouths of small rivers with loose peaty soils

91. Reed (Phragmites communis Trin.), small reed (Calamagrostis langsdorffii Trin.), sedge (Carex orthostachys C.A.Mey.) and horsetail hydrophilous communities in the along-channel zones of rivers on newly formed alluvium with cryogenic floodplain waterlogged soils   

92. Waterlogged sedge (Carex lithophila (Turcz.) Hämet-Ahti, C. schmidtii Meinsh., C. cespitosa L.) and gramineous-forb (Ranunculus sceleratus L., R. propinquus C.A.Mey, Rumex gmelinii Turcz. ex Ledeb., Stachys aspera Michaux, Calamagrostis langsdorffii Trin., C. neglecta (Ehrh.) Gaertner) meadows in floodplain, often flooded lows on meadow-bog cryogenic soils, combined with shrubs vegetation (Salix kochiana Trautv., S. viminalis L.) and waterlogged larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) forests in river valleys with gleyed slightly peaty soils with close occurence of permafrost

93. Sedge (Carex cespitosa L., C. karoi Freyn, C. orthostachys C.A.M., C. rynchophysa C.A.M.) meadows, combined with shrubs (Salix viminalis L., S. rhamnifolia Pall., Caragana spinosa (L.) DC.) and spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) (along the Tesiin-Gol river) forests on edges of lakes and in river valleys with loamy soils

Central-Asian formations

94. Iris (Iris biglumis Vahl.) meadows on river terraces and along-channel tracts with loamy soils, combined with Leymus steppes and solonchak communities in floodplains and kettle depressions of salt lakes with well-drained alluvial sandy soils

95. Forb-gramineous (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, Geranium pretense L., Sanguisorba afficinalis L.) meadows along river valleys with cryogenic soddy-gley and meadow-bog soils, combined with shrubs (Salix pentandra L., S. arbuscula L., Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb., Betula fruticosa Pall.) (along the Tesiin-Gol river – Populus laurifolia Ledeb.) along rivers and lower parts of slopes with boggy moistened peaty-meadow soils

96. Halophytic-forb (Halerpestes salsuginosa (Pallas ex Gejrgi) Greene, Iris biglumis Vahl.), halophytic-gramineous (Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski) and sedge (Carex enervis C.A.M., C. duriuscula C.A.M.) meadows, in places with the inclusion of willow stands (Salix ledebouriana Traunv.), on edges of solonchak depressions, lakes, terraces and along banks of steppe rivers and brooks with meadow-solonchak soils, combined with alkaligrass (Puccinellia tenuiflora (Griseb.), Scribn. Et Merr., P. Hauptiana V.I.Krecz.) and saltwort (Salsola corniculata (C.A.Meyer) Bunge, s. str.) meadows on solonchaks, on bottoms of saline lowlands and around intermittent lakes with meadow-solonchak-like soils in the steppe and forest-steppe zones, predominantly in the east and in the central part of Mongolia.

 

Vegetation

The map “Vegetation” is an overview-reference geobotanical map. All available different-scale cartographic materials on the vegetation of southern East Siberia of the Russian Federation, literary and archival sources, and forest inventory data were used when compiling the map. For the territory of Northern Mongolia, basic cartographic and literary materials on the vegetation of this region of Central Asia were involved. For the entire area of the Baikal basin modern satellite images from the Internet resources (Google Earth) were used. Their processing was carried out with the use of GIS technologies.

When creating the legend to the vegetation map of the Baikal region, well-tested geographical-genetic and structural-dynamic principles of a multi-dimensional and multi-stage vegetation classification, developed by Academician V.B. Sochava, were applied. Accordingly, the legend of the map has a multi-stage structure.

All higher subdivisions of vegetation in the map legend are united by specific taxa of plant communities, typed according to the flora-coenotic and dynamic features of their structure. When typing an epitaxon principle was followed, according to which on the basis of structural-dynamic and topological similarity indigenous communities are joined together with derivatives into common epitaxa. The lowest unit of indigenous communities being mapped is a class-group of associations. On the total the map legend contains 96 numbers of epitaxa of indigenous and derivative vegetation. Each taxon singled out in the legend has a detailed floristic, structural-coenotic and ecological-topological characteristics. Due to the complexity of the spatial structure of the vegetation cover, combinations and complexes of plant communities, which are the most characteristic of a particular type of vegetation or area, are almost universally used.

The highest level of the legend is formed by the following vegetation types: goletz (alpine), taiga (boreal) and steppe, communities of which form the modern vegetation cover of the Baikal basin. Each type of vegetation is presented by its set of communities of genetically close phratries of formations and their regional groups of formations.

Taiga (boreal) vegetation covers the main areas of the Baikal basin both in the plains and high plateaus, and in the mountains, forming a mountain-taiga altitudinal belt and a belt of subgoletz sparse forests. According to the landscape features of the region, taiga (boreal) vegetation is represented in the legend and in the map by several groups of formations, namely: subgoletz sparse forests with thickets of shrubs, mostly of Siberian dwarf pine, mountain-taiga forests, piedmont-hollow forests, and forests of plains and plateaus.

The first three groups represent an altitudinal-belt structure of vegetation of mountain ranges. Altitudinal-belt groups of formations of taiga (forest) vegetation are represented by communities of different origin and territorial confinedness.

In the contact zones of the taiga and steppe (in the form of islands) vegetation forest-steppe complexes are formed; they are mostly of expositional-conditional nature. Southern warm and dry slopes of mountains and hills are occupied, as a rule, by steppe groups, while northern and eastern cold slopes are covered with forest taiga and in some places steppificated communities. In accordance with the terrain features, these complexes are represented by three groups, namely: mountain, of plains and plateaus, and piedmont ones.

Steppe vegetation occupies large areas in the south of the Baikal basin and in northern Mongolia. Here there is an important biogeographical barrier that separates two large flora-coeno-genetic groups of western North Kazakhstan and eastern Central Asia steppes, representing Trans-Volga-Kazakhstan and Mongolian-Chinese phratries of formations, respectively.

Two groups of formations are clearly distinguished; they are mountain steppes and steppes of foothills, elevated plains and hummocks. In each of them, large ecological-morphological groups – meadow and dry steppes – are distinguished according to the nature of steppe vegetation. For each of these groups within the respective phratries of formations independent regional steppe complexes are identified, namely: Southern Siberian, northern Mongolian and Central Asian formations. The main areas, both in the mountains and on the plains and hummocks, are occupied by dry steppes of the Mongolian-Chinese phratrie of formations.

In general, the map reveals in details the spatial flora-coenotic structure of the vegetation cover of the Baikal basin in its evolutionary-genetic and dynamic dependence. Regional-geographical features of the coenotic diversity are well identified, taking into account their zonal-subzonal or altitudinal development conditions.

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