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088-3. Atmospheric air condition - Ulaanbatar_The isolines of concentration of dust in Ulaanbaatar when calm is map

Atmospheric air condition - Ulaanbatar_The isolines of concentration of dust in Ulaanbaatar when calm is map

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Open air condition

Open air condition deterioration in populated areas is still caused by:

  1. Emissions from industrial enterprises:

-          due to application of raw products high in pollutants;

-          resulted from substantial aging aggression of equipment and/or absence of cleaning equipment;

-          due to breakdown in technological processes etc.

2. Vehicle emissions:

-          as a result of traffic increase including “old” cars;

-          due to poor transportation performance;

-          because of great quantity of traffic jams  [On sanitary-epidemiologic …, 2012].

Emissions from industrial enterprises and vehicles are very high in various pollutants: sulfur dioxide, dust, carbonic oxide, nitrogen oxides, benzapyrene, methyl mercaptan and others enter the air basin from many sources. Involved in photochemical reactions with oxygen and hydrocarbons the substances generate other pollutants. Therefore, study of spatiotemporal dynamics air pollutants remains a topical issue. Nevertheless, it appears important to determine not only the way pollutants will propagate in the atmosphere around industrial centers but also the way they will spread over reference areas, one of which being Lake Baikal basin.

Wind regime at the Baikal shores combines windblasts provided by macro-scale general circulation and circulation of local origin with breezes, highland-valley circulation and gravity windblasts. The basic large-scale windblast over the Baikal basin and its shores is north-western air-mass transport. Although under complex orographic influence some peculiar Baikal winds appear here. In the cold period of the year together with large-scale air-mass transport off-shore winds are observed at the coast; in the warm period – onshore winds which is common to seashores. This fact has an apparent impact on travel of pollutants from industrial enterprises in Irkutsk Region and Republic of Buryatia.

Nowadays to protect Lake Baikal and its surroundings almost entire coastal territory of the lake is covered with reservation conditions. But in spite of natural areas of preferential protection round the lake, industrial activity is continuing to generate a negative impact.

Basic economic line of production in Baikal Region is determined by extensive fuel-and-power and primary natural resources. This fact stipulated energy-intensive industry advancement – ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, mining, chemical, wood-processing, pulp and paper and fuel and energy industries as well as forestry. Enterprises of the above-listed industries provide such common pollutants as dust, channel black, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, heavy metals etc. Moreover, each manufacture is accompanied by its specific list of pollutants.

Atmospheric pollution in the basin of Lake Baikal was estimated by the numerically simulated model based on analytic calculations of differential equation of travel and eddy mixing extraneous substances. Contaminated air plumes from anthropogenic sources were evaluated; critical concentration excess zones (MPC daily average) as well as excess duration estimated in hours per month were determined.

Inventory data for indicators of emitters together with long-standing data of wind velocity and air temperature daily weather observations with 8-prefix of time were applied as the input information for calculations to obtain statistically stable climatological characteristics.

The quoted results demonstrate that the environmental situation in the number of populated areas of Baikal Region does not answer to the enforceable standard (MPC daily average) for air quality. Furthermore, pollutants from industrial enterprises overspread not over the territory of the polluted area only but run far beyond it.

On the grounds of the city of Irkutsk there are approximately 250 industrial enterprises with more than 3000 stationary air pollution sources carried as an asset. They provide substances of 113 names and create dangerous air contamination levels. It is proved by the fact that Irkutsk has made the list of prioritized cities with highest air pollution levels over the recent 10 years. The main production facilities furthering repugnant substances high levels are “Irkutskenergo” JSC (contributes 52,9 %), “Baikalenergo” JSC, “Irkutsk Corporation” JSC. It is worth noting that power industry plays the leading role in air pollution emissions. It is accounted for 82,7 % of the total harmful air contamination in Irkutsk  [Akhtimankina, 2013]. According to the results obtained almost entire territory of the city is influenced by air contamination over the enforceable hygienic standard. Hazardous substances concentration reaches a maximum closer to emission points.

The basic stationary air pollution sources in the city of Ulan-Ude are CHPP-1 and CHPP-2, locomotive repair plant, aircraft factory, construction and food processing facilities and others [On the condition…, 2009] with approximately 2000 point and areal sources carried as an asset.

The fuel-and-power complex in the city of Ulan-Ude vents almost half of the total amount of citywide pollution emission. Combustion gases from cogeneration plants and other power assets travel long distances (about some kilometers) with prevailing winds contributing to regional environmental pollution. But the most dangerous for the city of Ulan-Ude are those which settle on the areas surrounding the source, in the sphere of so-called intensive technogenic pollution. Majority of fuel-and-power enterprises (e.g. CHPP-1) are located in high density areas and it makes the situation even worse. In combination with flue gases air basin is polluted with a number of solid and gas contaminants containing such repugnant substances as refuse burnout, carbon oxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Machine building enterprises sources vent dust, various acids and lye, nitriles and other compounds, phenol, methyl hydroxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, solvents vapors (toluene, xylol, paint thinner, benzene chloride, dichloroethane, spirits, acetates, etc.), ingredients of organic and inorganic fillers (salts and oxides of titanium, zinc, lead, chrome and other metals), as well as components of film-forming agents (styrole, formaldehyde, etc.). The major contamination resources are the following: galvanizing, paint and foundry plants, galvanic and accumulator shops, repair rooms, etc [Imetkhenov, 2001]. Research suggested environmental situation in Ulan-Ude to be unfavorable, conditioned, on the one hand, by high level of technogenic burden, and, on the other hand, by poor air dissipative capacity resulted in polluted air blanketing. The city’s location in an intermountain basin contributes to industrial emissions accumulation.

On the grounds of the city of Ulaanbaatar there are 860 areal sources mainly presented by household ovens [Arguchintseva, 2011].  In accordance with estimations, the ultimate air pollution was registered in the areas of concentration of yurts which occupy the entire northern part of the city and spread towards west and east from the center of Ulan-Bator. High level air pollution zone is situated on the south-western city outskirts, near Buyant-Ukhaa airport with the yurt village nearby. Here wind direction and relief contribute to the yurt village’s emission travel towards the airport. Heating of the yurt village air emission creates a stable critical pollutant concentration excess field around the airport. Combined with unfavorable meteorological conditions, this means a problem takeoff and landing situation for almost a two week period. It brings about risk and considerable financial losses due to aircraft idle time.

The data represented demonstrate that in a number of populated areas of Lake Baikal Region, especially large ones, experience adverse environment, which undoubtedly tells on the local people’s health. Permanent residence under the air pollution conditions leads to overall health decline and higher disease incidence, diseases of the respiratory system in particular.

References:

  1. Akhtimankina A.V. Air pollution by industrial plants of Irkutsk city / A.V. Akhtimankina, A.V. Arguchintseva // Izvestia Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Series «Earth sciences». – Irkutsk: Publishing house of Irkutsk state university, 2013. – V.6, №1.  – P.3-19.
  2. Arguchintseva A.V. About dust distribution in atmosphere of Ulaanbaatar / A.V. Arguchintseva, V.K. Arguchintsev, Bat-Erdene Ariunsanaa // Izvestia Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Series «Earth sciences». – Irkutsk: Publishing house of Irkutsk state university. - 2011. - V. 4, № 2. - P. 17-27.
  3. Imetkhenov A.B. Ecology, nature protection and environmental management: manual for universities / A.B. Imetkhenov, A.I. Kulikov, A.A. Atutov. – Ulan-Ude: Publishing house of ESSTU, 2001. – 422 p.
  4. On sanitary-epidemiologic situation in Irkutsk region in 2011: state report. – Irkutsk, 2012. – 256 p.

On the condition of Lake Baikal and the measures of its protection in 2008: state report. – Irkutsk, 2009. – 455 p

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