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049. Recreational resources of climate map

Recreational resources of climate map

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Recreational climate resources

A complex of several climatic factors, such as high sunshine duration (from 2800 hours per annum in the south of the basin to 1500 hours per annum in the north), wide range of heat supply (the sum of mean daily temperatures above 10° C varies from 2400 in the south of the basin to 244 in the highlands), sustained low temperatures in the hollow land forms, and predominantly low wind velocities contribute to the formation of local climates with highly varied suitability for seasonal recreation. Background climatic characteristics of diverse territories, such as hollow, valley, low-, mid-, and high-altitude vary considerably. Their main features in this case are characterized by a number of differently directed indices, whose combined impact on humans can have a similar effect. The same air temperature has a dissimilar thermal effect on a human body in the case of different wind velocities and different air humidity.

Normal-equivalent-effective temperature (NEET) method is often used to take into consideration their combined influence upon the thermal state of man. The levels of comfortable perception of heat according to the NEET scale vary within a broad range depending on the degree of man’s adaptation to environmental conditions. The use of the duration of NEET values above 8 °C for the background assessment of contrasting territories demonstrated its validity [Bashalkhanova et al., 2012].

Reduced temperature (Qred) indicates heat losses from the open surface of human body in the wintertime under a combined effect of air temperature and wind velocity [Khairulin and Karpenko, 2005]. With Qred below −32 °C, the risk of frostbite increases, so recreation in the open air is limited.

In the total form the complex of the most important characteristics of climatic resources favorable for recreation is represented by the duration of periods with NEET above 8 °C and those limiting it – by Qred below −32 °C.

Spatial distribution of indicators under study is dependent on a complex interaction of the main climate forcing factors, such as radiative and circulatory ones as well as the underlying surface properties, which provide a variety of mesoclimatic conditions, manifestation of latitudinal and altitudinal zonality elements and local patterns for recreational activity

In summer the variety of landscape conditions exerts considerable influence on climatic regimes formation alongside with the latitudinal factor. The plain-valley mesoclimates combining the steppe, steppificated, and subtaiga piedmont pine landscapes of slopes, plains and river valleys are characterized by the broadest possibilities for recreation and treatment of the population [Landscapes…, 1977; National…1990]. The duration of days with the NEET above 8 °C is highest. Recreational resources of the climate of uplands and mountainous territories are substantially lower; they are characterized by a shorter duration of the favorable period. The duration decreases dramatically depending on the latitudinal and altitudinal location of natural complexes. For instance, for the dark coniferous landscapes of uplands, dark coniferous and larch piedmont and intermontane depressions as well as bogged larch depressions on the plains its duration is from 40 to 70 days. In the mountain-taiga landscapes of flat (sometimes slope) surfaces as well as in dark coniferous landscapes of high slopes and plateaus, this period is less than 40 days. In high mountains with goletz, subgoletz and, partly, mountain-taiga larch forests, the mean monthly NEETs do not reach 8 °C.

The low recreational potential of the climate in winter is conditioned by circulation and astronomical factors. In the subtypes of climates weakly differing in summer (plain-valley, narrow valley and highlands) elements of latitudinal zonality are clearly traced. The period of possible limitation of recreation in the open air in the northern and southern parts of the basin can differ nearly twofold. Meanwhile the stagnant phenomena in orographically isolated intermontane depressions and closed river valleys are accompanied by the longest period of Qred below −32 °C, which reveals more favorable conditions on their slopes. The severity of winters for open surfaces of slopes and summits obeys the wind regime.

Quite special conditions occur on the shores of Lake Baikal. The warming (in winter) and cooling (in summer) influence of the lake’s water masses showed a shift toward a decrease in climatic-physiological comfort of landscapes when compared with their counterparts outside the influence zone. This is largely due to the large horizontal temperature gradients between land and lake, which are often the cause of strong winds, the exceptional variety, unpredictability and velocity of which are well known. For that reason, on certain parts of the shore, especially in the west, in the mountain-taiga pine and larch landscapes the number of days with the NEET above 8 °C is lowest (less than 40 days). Meanwhile, in the wind-proof parts of the shore (Peschanaya Bay, the Kuchelga river valley, etc.) the conditions for recreation are optimal. In winter the dependence of the climatic-recreational potential on the location grows even further. In some shore areas relatively favorable in the summer season, the length of the period of reduced temperature below −32 °C differs substantially.

On the whole, the recreation resources of the climate across the territory are relatively varied. Given the availability of mud-bath resources in the depressions and broad river valleys with a shorter length of the limiting period, there is a possibility of launching the sanatorium-and-spa treatment. Of considerable interest are the middle mountains of Khangai and the interfluves of the Selenga and Orkhon rivers. The climatic resources of other territories are more suitable for extensive development and promotion of tourism and stationary recreation. Because of the low heat availability and abrupt fluctuations in the temperature-wind regime, the shores of Lake Baikal and Lake Hovsgol are favorable for recreation of healthy people only. Obviously, depending on the characteristics of heat and moisture exchange and on the regime of the local circulation, the period for different kinds of recreation is variable. Thus, the slopes of the Khamar-Daban on the southern shores of Lake Baikal are most favorable for the winter kinds of recreation due to the abundance of snow, and the appropriate combination of temperature and wind regimes. The shores of Middle Baikal characterized by a long duration of sunshine are more favorable for summer recreation.

The experience of the cartographic analysis and multiscale assessment of recreational resources of the climate showed that in a number of cases climate resources essential for the recreation of people and conditioned by microclimatic differences may considerably exceed their latitudinal background parameters. Thus, a comprehensive expert examination of the recreational resources of the climate is important when a certain area is selected for implementation of investment projects.

References

Bashalkhanova, L.B., Veselova, V.N. and Korytny, L.M. (2012). Resource Dimension of Social Conditions for the Life of the Population of East Siberia, Novosibirsk: Geo, 221 p. [in Russian].

Landscapes of the South of East Siberia (1:1 500 000 Map). (1977). V.S. Mikheev and V.A. Ryashin, Moscow: GUGK, 4 sh. [in Russian].

Mongol ulsyn undesnii atlas. (2009). Ulaan-Baatar: SHUA. Gazarzuin khurzelen. - 248 p. [in Mongolian].

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