You are here: Home / GIS / Ecological atlas of the Lake Baikal basin

Atlas

Land resources use map

Open full size

Land resources and their use

Land resources are the main spatial basis, a store of various types of mineral resources for many branches of industry, as well as a basic means of production for agriculture and forestry. For the latter branches land resources and soil fertility are important means of growing crops and forest stands. For other types of land use (residential, transport, etc.) the role of land resources is reduced mainly to the role of the operational basis for spatial location of specific objects inherent to these types of land use.

Under the working legislation and established practice state land registration in the Russian Federation is carried out on land categories and agricultural lands, forms of ownership and types of land rights, as well as their use for agricultural production and other needs. Land registration in Mongolia is carried out similarly (with minor changes).

On the basic map the land fund structure on agricultural lands is presented as a quality background. The latter ones are defined as land, systematically used or usable for specific economic purposes and different in their natural and historical features. Land carries material properties typical of land use as an economic phenomenon.

The second map and the Table represent the layout of the land fund on land categories and the index of availability of agricultural land. Land categories are land plots distinguished according to their intended use (agricultural land, settlements, industry, energy, transport, communication, defense and security, etc., forest, water resources, reserves, etc.). Mongolia is characterized by the absence of the concept of "land reserve". However, a large share of the land fund structure there belongs to public land for special purposes, which consists not only of lands of defense and security and protected areas, but lands, used in ways uncharacteristic of Russia. Therefore, in the map legend the category "lands of state and special purpose" applies only to Mongolia, excluding the land of specially protected natural areas and defense and security lands. The latter ones are included in the respective land categories.

The availability index of farmland is the ratio of agricultural land area (in hectares) belonging to the agricultural land to the number of residents living in the municipality. Farmland is an essential part of land, which is a potential resource for the formation of local food base. The average area of agricultural land per capita (within Russian territory, except Tere-Khol district of the Republic of Tyva) amounts to 3.7 hectares; it ranges from 0.06 ha within Sludyansky district of Irkutsk oblast to 22.9 ha in the Eravninsky district of the Republic of Buryatia. Within the Mongolian territory the indicators of the agricultural land per aimak inhabitant, is on the average significantly higher than in the Russian part of the basin as it amounts to about 45 hectares. Minimum rates are found in the Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Orkhon aimaks, which is connected, first of all, with the high population numbers in these aimaks and relatively smaller areas of agricultural land compared to other aimaks.

In 1990 – 2010 the reduction of agricultural area for most municipalities is registered in the Russian part of the basin, which is directly linked to their withdrawal from agricultural use. The main reason of the reduction of such agricultural areas was shutdown of many agricultural enterprises, organizations, and farms and transfer of the withdrawn lands, for the most part, to the land redistribution fund. Another reason is the expiration of the land leasehold (or temporary use) and non renewal of its agricultural productivity. The agricultural land reduction is caused by negative processes became widespread due to the sharp reduction of valuable land protection measures from water and wind erosion, flooding, bogging, waterlogging and other processes. It should be noted that the actual outflow of productive land is much higher. Previously transferred farmland reserves are overgrown with shrubs and low forests and lose their agricultural value.

In Mongolia problems of agricultural lands reduction are currently not registered because of their significant amount due to natural factors and historical specific features of agriculture.

Document Actions

Landscape stability map

Open full size

Landscapes stability

Landscape stability is one of the most important parameters determining the state of the environment and changes occurring in it under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The nature of landscape changes depends on the location in the geographical environment, their properties, and type and extent of the anthropogenic impact. Of particular importance is the estimation of landscapes stability of the Baikal basin, which is an environmentally critical area.

Landscape stability is a property of a geosystem to maintain its structure and the mode of functioning under changing conditions of its environment [Protection of landscapes..., 1982]. An assessment and mapping of landscapes stability are made according to the complex of natural and anthropogenic factors of influence. The natural factor is mainly determined by the influence of climate (indicators of heat-moisture supply) and the properties of lithological-and-geomorphological basis. The anthropogenic influencing factor is associated with the background nature management, which is based on spatially extensive use of natural resources, and lands, closely related to the zonal-belt features of natural landscapes. The background types of nature management in the study area include agriculture, mainly in steppe landscapes, forestry in taiga landscapes, as well as recreation.

Stability is considered in relation to landscapes of two levels: regional (geoms) and topological (groups of facies). A landscape map, compiled by the authors on the basis of landscape maps of the territory under consideration [Landscapes..., 1977; Landscapes..., 1990], was used for its mapping.

Stability of landscapes of the regional level – geoms – is determined based on the level of natural ecological potential of a landscape (EPL), the main indicator of which is the index of biological effectiveness of climate (TK) according to N.N. Ivanov [Ecological..., 2007, Ecological..., 2007]. Characterization and comparative assessment of this indicator is based on the ratio of heat and moisture, on which the biological productivity of a landscape and ecological capacity primarily depend. At the same time, the influence of latitudinal and altitudinal zonality on their distribution is traced. A single and continuous process of moisture and heat exchange not only forms the spatial differentiation and a type of a landscape, but also determines its stability. Landscapes with high values of TK and EPL are the most stable, while low values ​​of these parameters characterize unstable landscapes.

Twenty-two geoms are represented in the landscape structure of the territory under consideration. Mountain terrain predominates in the catchment area of ​​Lake Baikal. Therefore, this territory is characterized by the altitudinal belt differentiation of landscapes, which determines the degree of their stability.

At the regional level, according to the values ​​of these indicators, landscapes are subdivided into five ecological groups of geoms, to which the corresponding values ​​of stability, ranged on a five-point scale, are assigned. These values ​​are considered as the starting point, or background stability.

A geom unites groups of facies similar in structural-dynamic characteristics [Sochava, 1978]. This taxonomic unit is important in generalization of geotopological works. Inside a geom, stability was readjusted in respect of groups of facies with different dynamic categories. A set of variable states of these categories includes indigenous, pseudo-indigenous, serial and derivative geosystems under one epifacie. The highest natural and anthropogenic stability characterizes indigenous landscapes with well-established intrasystemic and external relations; many of them are notable for durability. Pseudo-indigenous landscapes, unlike indigenous ones, are modified as a result of hypertrophy of one of the components of the system. Serial facies in most cases are nondurable, quickly alternating with each other spontaneous geosystems, formed under the significant hypertrophy influence of various natural factors. In a range of transformation of geosystems they are characterized by the greatest variability and are prone to damage, and therefore they are classified as landscapes unstable to anthropogenic impacts. Derivative landscapes are variable states of geosystems caused by human influence. They are characterized by different degrees of stability.

The highest values ​​of stability, considered as the initial point corresponding to the background rate of stability of a geom, are set for indigenous facies. Further on, the initial point is reduced to three gradations, namely, for pseudo-indigenous, serial and derivative facies. For pseudo-indigenous facies a decrease in the stability by 1 point in relation to the initial point is possible; for serial facies it can amount to 1-2 points. For derivative facies deviations from the norm can reach 1-2 points towards an increase or decrease in the stability depending on the type of succession, namely, progressive stabilizing or digressive destabilizing.

To assess the anthropogenic stability of landscapes an analysis was made of disturbances of natural environment, arising under the influence of various types of human activities related to the background land use. According to the predominant nature of the background land use, the following types of functional load on the environment were distinguished: agricultural arable and grazing (mainly for steppe and forest-steppe landscapes), and forestry (for taiga landscapes) and recreation.

Stability of arable lands was largely determined by the intensity of erosion loss, soil deflation and pesticide pollution, and natural self-purification potential of soils. Stability of natural-forage lands was determined in respect of plant communities to grazing and haymaking and was assessed according to the degree of degradation of hayfields and pastures, susceptibility to erosion and deflation, and recoverability of vegetation and soils.

The most significant impact on the state of forests is made by commercial logging using the clear felling approach. Stability of forest landscapes was determined according to the degree of disturbance of forests by felling and fires, recreation, and agricultural use. Reforestation is influenced by changing temperature conditions, hydrophysical properties of soils, evolving erosion and cryogenic processes, deflation and waterlogging in felled and burnt areas. An important criterion for stability, i.e. forest bonitet, is an indicator of productivity and environmental growth conditions, evaluated by richness (trophicity) and moisture content of soil. Environmental factors, spontaneous and associated with the human activity, prevent natural reforestation; their progressive successions do not reach the original state. Such landscapes fall in the category of the most unstable.

Recreational stability is assessed referring to the mass recreation and tourist-excursion activities. Indicators of the degree of recreational digression of landscapes, depending on the type and intensity of recreational influence, sensitivity and recoverability of landscapes, which together define their recreational potential, served as stability criteria. Stability of landscapes is a key indicator, based on which the regulation of recreational loads is made.

The compiled map reflects the territorial diversity of landscape stability, characteristics of which is presented in the table.

The lowest and low (I-II points) stability characterize goletz and sub-goletz landscapes presented in major mountain ranges in the north-eastern and south-western parts of the territory. In the north-east, they are goletz and sub-goletz landscapes of the Baikalsky, Verkhne-Angarsky, Barguzinsky, and Ikatsky ridges in the framing of the Severo-Baikalskaya, Verkhne-Angarskaya and Barguzinskaya depressions. In the Khovsgol region and in Southern Cisbaikalia they include the Eastern Sayan mountain structures. In the south-west, alpine meadows, and subalpinotype and subgoletz landscapes of the Khangai and Khentei uplands are characterized by low stability.

Ecological potential of these landscapes is very low; TK is less than 8. The structure of geoms is dominated by serial groups of facies. They are characterized by severe climatic conditions and dissected mountainous terrain, active development of exogenous geological processes, and lack of heat and excess of moisture. The same values ​​of stability are assigned to steppe landscapes of depressions and valley bottoms, characterized by the excess of heat together with the lack of moisture, with manifestations of cryomorphism, waterlogging, water erosion and deflation, and soil salinization.

In general, the Baikal basin is dominated by moderately stable and stable landscapes (III-IV points), distributed mainly in the central part of the territory. They are characterized by medium and relatively high ecological potential; the index of biological effectiveness of climate amounts to 8-16. Pseudo-indigenous geosystems with a relatively stable landscape structure predominate.

Landscapes of reduced development of mountain-taiga and taiga intermountain depressions and valleys, having dispersed distributional pattern and occurring in the Selenga-Vitim interfluve and to the north of the Khangai upland, are referred to the stability of III points.

The stability of III points also characterizes piedmont and plain relatively dry and arid steppes. They are located in the Barguzinskaya depression, in hollows of the Trans-Baikal type, to the north of the Khangai upland, and in the surroundings of the Khentei upland.

The group of geoms with the stability of IV points includes mountain-taiga landscapes of restrictive and optimal development, taiga piedmont landscapes of intermontane depressions and valleys of restrictive development, mountain low-bunchgrass and forbs-bunchgrass, and mountain dry steppes. The main areas of development of taiga landscapes of this stability group are low- and middle mountains to the south of the Eastern Sayan, the Primorsky ridge, Selenginskoe middle mountains, Vitimskoe plateau, Olekminsky Stanovik, Khentei-Chikoy upland, and others. Mountain steppes with IV points of stability are most commonly found in the Selenge-Orkhon interfluve.

Landscapes with the highest ecological potential for the region, and TK amounting to 16-20, are classified as the most stable (V points). In the Russian part of the territory, they are landscapes of piedmont and intermountain depressions of optimal development, as well as piedmont subtaiga landscapes. They are found in the Verkhne-Angarskaya and Barguzinskaya depressions, in the Selenga river delta, and in depressions of the Trans-Baikal type. In Mongolia they are represented by mountain subtaiga landscapes, the large area of which is middle and low mountains lying to the north of the Khangai upland in the central part of the basin of the Selenge and Orkhon rivers. The structure of geoms is dominated by pseudo-indigenous and indigenous geosystems. They are the nuclei of the ecological stability and reproduction of the environment [Mikheev, 2001]. In the landscape structure of the region their distribution area is in the transition zone between taiga and steppe landscapes with low background stability.

The conducted mapping of landscape stability is the basis for the assessment of the anthropogenic impact on the environment, and for substantiation of environmentally acceptable nature management in the Baikal basin.

References

Landscapes of the south of Eastern Siberia (map, scale 1:1500000). (1977). V.S. Mikheev and V.A. Ryashin. Moscow: GUGK, , 4 sheets.

Landscapes (map, scale 1:3000000) (1990). in National Atlas. Mongolian People's Republic. Ulaanbaatar–Moscow, pp. 83-85.

Mikheev, V.S. (2001). Landscape synthesis of geographic knowledge. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 216 p.

Protection of Landscapes. Explanatory Dictionary. (1982). Moscow: Progress, 272 p.

Sochava, V.B. (1978). Introduction to the Theory of Geosystems. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 320 p.

Ecological potential of landscapes (map, scale 1:15000000). (2007). In National Atlas of Russia. Vol 2: Nature and Ecology. Moscow: PKO “Kartografiya”, p. 417.

Ecologo-geographical map (scale 1:15000000). (2007). In National Atlas of Russia. Vol. 2: Nature and Ecology. Moscow: PKO “Kartografiya”, pp. 454-456.

Document Actions

Main types of nonmetallic materials map

Open full size

Open full size

The main types of nonmetallic raw materials: resources and development

Nonmetallic mineral resources of the region are of great industrial importance. Within the Baikal basin there are deposits of mining-chemical, thermo-chemical, and optical raw materials, construction materials, mineral fertilizers, ornamental and precious stones.

Deposits of raw quartz belong to strategic types of mineral resources. The region has a large raw materials base explored and prepared for industrial development: there are deposits of especially pure granular quartz (Chulbonskoe, Nadyozhnoe, Goudzhekitskoe, and others) and quartzites (Cheremshanskoe and Goloustenskoe). The vast majority of deposits are located in the territory of Buryatia; there are all prerequisites for creating a large complex of plants for deep processing of raw quartz for high-tech industries. In prospect, the republic can become the largest producer and exporter of polysilicon and total energy systems. Currently, there is a development project of the Chulbonskoe granular quartz deposit in the Severobaikalsky municipal district to get the end-product in the form of photovoltaic systems.

Quartzites of the mined Cheremshanskoe deposit are of exceptionally high raw materials quality meeting industrial requirements for the production of industrial silicon, silicon carbide and ferrosilicon; in recent years, research is carried out on the purest varieties to produce high-purity silicon for  helioenergetics and growing of single crystals of piezoelectric quartz. The deposit has been mined since 1992 by ZAO (Closed Joint Stock Company) “Cheremshansky quartsit” with an annual output of about 200 thousand tons and is a mineral resource base of ZAO (Closed Joint Stock Company) “Kremniy” of the OK (United Company) RUSAL, one of the most cutting edge silicon production facilities in Russia and the country's only producer of refined silicon .

Quartzites of the Goloustenskoe deposit can be used in metallurgy, and in the production of silica bricks. Sources of high-quality abrasive raw materials are microquartzites of two large deposits, located in the Olkhonsky municipal district on the eastern slope of the Baikal Range, namely, Srednekedrovoe and Zavorotninskoe. The latter was developed from 1975 till 1993 by “Baikalkvartssamotsvety”; currently, the deposits are on the governmental standby.

Considerable reserves of raw fluorspar were explored in the Baikal basin in the Republic of Buryatia. Currently, one deposit is mined here. It is the medium Egitinskoe deposit in the Eravninsky district; extracted ore is processed at the ore-dressing plant of the Zabaikalsky mining complex. The Naranskoe deposit in the Selenginsky district was prepared for operation and was mined for some time. The Kyakhtinskaya fluorspar factory operated near the settlement of Khoronkhoy from 1966; first it worked on local raw materials, and then on raw materials imported from Mongolia. Currently, the factory is out of operation.

The region possesses large reserves of chemically pure limestones: in the Olkhonsky municipal district there is the Ust-Anginskoe deposit, and in the Zaigraevsky district there is the Bilyutinskoe deposit developed for the production of calcium carbide and the Tatarsky Klyuch for the paint and coatings industry. Dolomites of the Tarabukinskoe deposit are used as a raw material for glass and metallurgical production.

Deposits of phosphate raw materials are known in Cisbaikalia. They are the Sarminskoe phosphorite deposit in the Olkhon municipal district and the Slyudyanskoe apatite deposit in the Sludyansky municipal district; in northern Mongolia large reserves of formation phosphorites in the Khovsgol phosphorite basin were discovered and previously explored. The main deposits of the basin are located in the immediate vicinity of Lake Khovsgol, which is an obstacle to their development. The large Oshurkovskoe apatite deposit is prepared for exploitation near the city of Ulan-Ude. On the basis of the approved ready reserves the Zabaikalsky apatite plant was under construction; it was closed down at the building phase of an ore-dressing plant because of possible deterioration of the environmental situation in the Baikal basin. Currently, there is a project of the deposit’s development based on environmentally friendly technologies for the extraction and beneficiation of ores. Taking into account a sustained deficit of phosphate raw materials in the country, an increase of the raw materials base for the production of phosphate fertilizers is a matter of economic security of Russia. The planned standard of production of apatite concentrate is 500 thousand tons per annum. Breakstone will be produced as a by-product in the same amount of 500 thousand tons per annum.

Considering the ceramic and fire-resisting raw materials, deposits of Irkutsk oblast should be pointed out. They are the Naryn-Kuntinskoe microcline pegmatite deposit, developed earlier for the needs of the “Sibfarfor” factory, the Kharginskoe glass sands deposit, on the basis of which the Taltsy plant was established in 1784 producing a variety of glass products for 170 years, and the Asyamovskoe deposit of wollastonite, a relatively new kind of mineral products with a number of unique properties and a growing range of applications. In the south of Buryatia a sillimanite (high-alumina) shales deposit named Chyornaya Sopka is known; its ores have simple mineral composition and are easily dressed. On the basis of the deposit a non-waste production with the release of sillimanite and quartz as commercial products can be created. All the above mentioned deposits are currently on the governmental standby.

Phlogopite mica deposits in the south of Lake Baikal have been known since the second half of the 18th century. Its regular commercial production using a ramified system of underground (tunnels, mines) and open (open pits) mine openings began in 1924 with the development of the electrical engineering industry in the country and lasted until 1973. From four to seven thousand tons of high-quality raw materials were mined annually in the Sludyansky district.

Graphite is represented in the region by two large deposits, namely, the Bezymyannoe (the Slyudyansky municipal district) and Boyarskoe (the Kabansky municipal district) deposits. Ores of the Bezymyannoe deposit are high quality and free-milling according to the manufacturer's tests, but the deposit is located in close proximity to Lake Baikal. The Boyarskoe deposit has the largest reserves. Economic efficiency of its development in compliance with all environmental requirements can be quite high despite low average graphite content in the ore, thanks to its favorable transportation and geographical location.

In the past, a considerable part of the Baikal basin experienced intense volcanic activity, the product of which is pearlite deposits, among which the largest ones are Mukhor-Talinskoe, Zakultinskoe, and Kholinskoe. Currently, this raw material is produced by OAO (Joint Stock Company) “Perlit” on the Mukhor-Talinskoe deposit with the production output amounting to 1-10 thousand m3 of raw material per annum over the last three years. The Kholinskoe pearlite and zeolite deposit is located on the border of the Republic of Buryatia and Zabaikalsky krai; the mining OOO (Limited Liability Company) “Kholinskie tseolity” develops the deposit. Nowadays, the capacity of the company mining such a valuable kind of mineral product as zeolites is small and amounts to only about 0.8 thousand tons.

Within the region there are a number of deposits of precious and ornamental stones. In Zabaikalsky krai, ZAO (Closed Joint Stock Company) “Turmalkhan” develops a unique deposit of jewelry tourmaline, which is the only one in Russia to date. In the Republic of Buryatia, OOO (Limited Liability Company) “Kaskad” exploits the Khargantinskoe deposit with an annual production of 20 tons of raw jade; ZAO (Closed Joint Stock Company) “MS Holding” started to develop the Khamarkhudinskoe jade deposit, where 510 tons were produced in 2012.

To meet the needs of the construction industry the region possesses significant resources of mineral construction materials: numerous deposits of cement, brick, sand and gravel raw materials, building and facing stone are explored in the area. The raw materials base of the Angarsky cement plant is the large Slyudyanskoe deposit of cement marbles, being developed by the OOO (Limited Liability Company) “Karyer Pereval” with an annual output of about 900 thousand tons. The Tarakanovskoe deposit of cement limestone and Timlyuiskoe deposit of loam supply the Timlyuisky cement plant with raw materials. OOO (Limited Liability Company) “Timlyuitsement” produces 250-400 thousand tons of limestone and 20-35 thousand tons of loam annually.

Facing stone deposits are located on the western and south-eastern shores of Lake Baikal; they are Burovshchina and Novo-Burovshchinskoe deposits of pink marbles and Buguldeiskoe deposit of highly-ornamental statuary marble of various color shades: from snow-white to smoky-gray. Currently, stone is not produced on any of these deposits. Among building stone deposits AO (Joint Stock Company) RZhD exploits two: one of them is the medium Angasolskoe deposit in Irkutsk oblast and the other is the large Zhipkhegenskoe deposit in Zabaikalsky krai forming the raw materials base of the same-name crushed stone plants. Several deposits of building stone are situated in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal, namely, Baikalskoe, Ermolaevskoe, Dinamitnoe and others, rendering their development impossible.

The following deposits of brick and keramzite claysand loams were discovered: the Murinskoe and Khuzhirskoe deposits in Cisbaikalia and Irkaninskoe deposit in the Severobaikalsky municipal district, deposits of sand-gravel mix, including the Utulikskoe deposit of high-quality raw materials, the Pankovskoe deposit of building sands, and so on.

Among other mineral resources of the region, the Zangodinskoe and Kalinishenskoe deposits of mineral paints, Khayanskoe deposit of drilling clays, several deposits of raw materials for stone casting, as well as deposits of mineral salts (sodium sulfate) should be mentioned. All deposits of these raw materials are small in terms of reserves and are on the governmental standby.

In Mongolia small deposits of asbestos, gypsum, graphite, talcum, magnesite, bentonite, ornamental stones (nephrite, serpentinite, lapis lasuli, ophicalcite, chalcedony, etc.), raw quartz, and mineral salts are known within the Baikal basin. As for construction materials there are deposits of building sand, brick, keramzite and ceramic clays, sand-gravel mix, building stone, etc.

The map presents the main nonmetallic mineral raw materials deposits, depending on their size and type of mineral product, as well as mining companies using symbols. The size of the symbol designating a company depends on the average production output over the recent three to five years or on the planned capacity of the objects designed and under construction; gradation is presented in the summary table. The color of the symbol corresponds to the operational phase of an enterprise. The Khubsugulsky phosphorite basin is shown with an areal.

Map construction required the use of the materials of the Regional Funds of Geological Information, maps of mineral resources of the A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute; materials of State Reports “On the Condition of Lake Baikal and Measures of its Protection” for 2010–2012; “National Atlas of the Mongolian People's Republic” (1990), “Atlas of Mongolia” in the Mongolian language (2010), and “Atlas of Socioeconomic Development of Russia” (2009). Information on deposits according to the types of raw materials and on mining companies is presented in the summary table.

Open full size

Open full size

Open full size

Open full size

Open full size

Open full size

Open full size

Document Actions
Document Actions
Navigation
« November 2017 »
November
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930
« November 2017 »
November
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
2627282930
IW:LEARN