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Circulatory system diseases map

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Healthcare

Harsh climatic conditions across the entire territory of the Baikal basin and the surface and ground water used for drinking and food purposes that do not meet the drinking water quality standards (first and foremost in Mongolia and Buryatia) coupled with atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities and motor vehicles (in some parts of the territory) are responsible for the state of human health influencing the organization of healthcare. The ecological situation becomes substantially worse during winter months, which is encouraged by the topography of the terrain. In Mongolia, the spring period is very hard time to bear, with sharp temperature differences, abrupt variations in atmospheric pressure, and frequent dust and magnetic storms.

The organizational pattern of healthcare in Russia and Mongolia has much in common. This is a result of the cooperation of the two countries in this sphere and the fact that medical education and healthcare in Mongolia are organized using Russian experience. Today, Mongolian medical facilities operate on the principles of the state-private partnership concurrent with the demonopolization of the state system of medical services. The country has a mandatory and voluntary medical insurance system, in which state-owned and private medical institutions take part. The country also has various health institutes and centers.

The territory of the Baikal basin is experiencing a deficit of medical workers. As of 2012, the availability of physicians varied from 13.8 to 30.1 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 16.1 to 29.0 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. The availability of nurses varies from 25.1 to 112.2 per 10,000 people in Russian districts and from 26.4 to 38.2 per 10,000 people in Mongolian aimags. In Ulan-Ude, these indicators have the values of 53.9 and 117.3, while in Ulaanbaatar – 44.1 and 41.2, respectively.

The ratio of doctors and nurses in the Russian part of the basin is between 1:2 to 1:4, while in the Mongolian part it does not exceed 1:2. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this ratio should be 1:4. A narrowing of this indicator causes imbalances in the healthcare system thereby limiting possibilities for further development of the after-treatment, casework and rehabilitation services.

Target indicators of healthcare activity are the standard volume of medical care per inhabitant. Currently, there are plans to decrease the per capita volume of in-patient services and increase the per capita volume of the hospital-replacing care. Accordingly, the number of hospital beds available 27/7 will decrease, while the number of beds in day hospitals will grow. Overall, the available number of hospital beds complies with the calculated standards and meets the demand of the population for the in-patient medical aid.

As of today, in Russia, there is an array of problems relating to the high level of illnesses and disability incidences among the population, and these indicators are continuously growing. Such a situation is the result of inadequate preventive measures. Another important contributing factor to this situation is the increase of the proportion of elderly population and the improved effectiveness of illness detection using new diagnostic methods in the process of the increased number of medical checkups.

The leading illnesses in the structure of morbidity are respiratory illnesses, bloodstream, eye, and digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, as well as traumas. For many years, circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and injuries have been the main causes of mortality and disability among the population.

A complex of anthropogenic environmental factors contributes to the growth of morbidity and disability rates among the population with the most important one being air pollution. According to the WHO, atmospheric air pollution is the cause of up to 23% of all illnesses. The amount of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere produced by static sources in different administrative divisions in the Baikal basin differs by more than a thousand times. The most polluted air in the Baikal basin is in the Selenginsky district of Buryatia.

The health of the population and further development of healthcare depend on ecological, social, and economic factors. These problems can be resolved only through comprehensive approaches to the improvement of the quality of life of the population.

The strategic goal of the healthcare systems of Russia and Mongolia is to build a system, which ensures the quality and accessibility of medical services, primarily first aid, and increases the efficiency of medical services, based on the improvement of territorial planning of healthcare. The volume, types, and quality of these services should correspond to the rate of morbidity, population requirements, and the latest achievements of medical science, based on perfecting the system of territorial planning of public health services.

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Climate discomfort map

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Discomfort of climate

The influence of climate on human beings manifests itself in a variety of fashions, primarily through man’s thermal state governed by external effects as well as by internal physiological processes. A comfortable perception of heat occurs when the input of heat and the thermal discharge in human body are in equilibrium. With an intensification of heat or cold, there is an increase in the tension of the physiological systems, which ensures this equilibrium. The intensity and duration of the impact from significant environmental parameters are responsible for the level of expenditures connected with the attainment of physiological comfort of the human life.

The number of days with normal-equivalent-effective temperature (NEET) above 8 °C is said to characterize indirectly the degree of comfort of a warm period for sensibly dressed people. The duration of periods with daily mean air temperatures below −25 °C and the sums above 10 °C represent the territory’s resources of heat and cold. The contrasts of the frost-free period determine the need for and the reliability of covering materials used in vegetable farming. In addition, a combination of low temperatures with wind velocity acts to enhance   heat output from open surfaces of human body. The risk of cold weather injuries when the values of reduced temperatures are below −32 °C serves as a forewarning in the case of arranging recreation and working in the open air [Khairullin and Karpenko, 2005]. The duration of the heating period makes it possible to calculate the future expenditures of heat necessary for heating various premises.

The spatial differentiation of the indices under consideration is important within the confines of the basin [Scientific-applied…, 1989, 1991; http://www.meteo.ru]. The mean daily temperature in the high mountains does not reach 10 °C, and its sum varies from 2400 °С in the southern part of the basin to 500 °С along the northeastern shores of Lake Baikal. The mean monthly NEET do not reach 8 °C in separate sections of the shores of Khovsgol and Baikal, and across the remaining territory they vary from 40 to 110 days. The frost-free period varies between 0 to 110 days. The smallest spatial fluctuations correspond to the duration of the heating season (230−305 days). The number of days with the mean daily air temperature below −25 °C is largest in the bottoms of closed depressions and valleys of the western part of the basin. With the wind factor taken into account, the differentiation of the severity of climate is enhanced. The mean values of reduced January temperature drop below −37 °C in Tosontsengel and Khatgal. In the former case, this is due to low air temperatures, whereas the increased wind activity is responsible for this in the latter case.

The combined effect of climatic resources has a substantial influence upon the aggregate volume of expenditures connected with the provision of physiological comfort for humans and the manufacture of products. The background characteristic features of the combined effect of the meteoparameters under consideration on humans and of their duration upon the degree of discomfort of habitation were revealed by using the resource-assessment approach [Bashalkhanova et al., 2012].

Throughout most of the basin’s territory the level of climatic discomfort is moderate, whereas it is strong on the northern, northwestern and western margins. The circle diagrams show the volume of the most differentiated parameters of climatic discomfort. The vertical axis is graduated in points from 1 to 5, and reflects the conditions of warm and cold periods. The diagrams corresponding to the most contrasting locations display the leading attributes of climatic discomfort of these territories.

A strong level of discomfort in the northern and western parts of the basin is due largely to the preceding low air temperatures, while on the shores of Khovsgol and in Tariat it is, to a larger extent, caused by a low heat availability in the summertime and, in the aggregate, by increased wind activity. The life of the population on such territories is more expensive and involves a limitation of the kinds of economic activities, shorter periods of stay in the open air, the requirement for a higher energy value of food, heat insulation of clothes and rooms, and a necessitous adjustment of production technologies, equipment and systems to low temperatures. On the other territory, the total duration of impacts of the parameters under consideration lies within moderate limits. The low duration of the period with NEET <5 °C (within 40−70 days) in the middle mountains is compensated by favorable winter conditions.

References

Bashalkhanova, L.B., Veselova, V.N. and Korytny, L.M., (2012). Resource Dimension of Social Conditions for the Life of the Population of East Siberia, Novosibirsk: Geo, 221 p.

Scientific-Applied Handbook on the USSR Climate. Ser. 3, Long-Term Data, Parts 1−6, (1989). Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1991, issue 22, 604 p.;, issue 23, 550 p.

Khairullin, K.Sh. and Karpenko, V.N., (2005). Bioclimatic resources of Russia, in Climatic Reources and Methods of Representing Them for Applied Purposes, St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, pp. 25−46

VNIIGMI-WDC Data Archives. Retrieved from: http://www.meteo.ru

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Cloudiness map

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Cloud cover

Two maxima are recorded in the annual trend of cloud cover: summer (June-July) and pre-freeze-up (November-December). The latter prevails. The highest cloud cover values (7-8 oktas) and increased recurrence of overcast days (up to 75-80%) are registered in December on the north-eastern coast of the lake, whereas the lowest values (no higher than 4 oktas) are observed in February-March on the western shore, particularly within the territory of Maloye More (Small Sea). The foehn effect plays a significant role during the transfer of air masses over the Primorsky and Baikal Ridges, which causes a considerable drop of air humidity. In October-December, the cloud cover is very low above Lake Baikal due to the intense water evaporation from the ice free surface of the lake.

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