You are here: Home / GIS / Ecological atlas of the Lake Baikal basin

Atlas

Comfort of available housing (Mongolian part) map

Open full size

Urban amenities of the housing fund in Mongolia (78-2)

The map shows a proportion of households in the country (%) living in residential houses with foundations (in permanent buildings – multi-apartment and low-rise buildings). According to the estimates, they account for over 17% of the housing fund of the country. Living conditions of households (families) in Mongolia that are statistically observed include the following five conditions:

- Households with a reliable source of drinking water, including households that have a reliable source of drinking water connected to a centralized system, protected well, or spring, as well as households that use purified and bottled water;

- Households with a source of electricity (electricity is supplied by the state electric power system, diesel power plants, renewable electric energy facilities, and small power generators);

- Households with a sewage system (inside or outside the house, but used only by the household);

- Households with a centralized and non-centralized sewage system for the disposal of wastewater through the central sewage system, independent system of sewage disposal, or cesspool;

- Households dispose of solid wastes through service companies or transport solid wastes to the designated areas or landfills themselves.

In Mongolia, more than two fifths of households (42.3%) living in permanent structures (buildings) use a centralized sewerage system, 0.4% use an independent sewage system, almost a half of households (48.3%) discharge wastewater into cesspools and 9% – on the terrain (directly into the ground).

 

References

National Statistical Office of Mongolia. (2011). Population and housing census of Mongolia 2010: Housing conditions. Ulaanbaatar.

Document Actions

Comfort of available housing (Russian part) map

Open full size

Urban amenities of the housing fund in

the Russian part of the basin

The share of housing properties with urban amenities is an important factor for ecological well-being of the Baikal basin. Russian statistical data identify the following components of urban amenities: running water, sewage, central heating, hot water supply, baths (showers), and gas and electric stoves. According to the current statistical regulations, all housing properties today are considered to be equipped with central heating irrespectively of the source of heat supply (heat and electric power plant, industrial or local boiler plants, individual boilers). As a rule, the characteristics of the degree of provision with urban amenities is calculated using relative indicators – a percentage of the area of housing properties equipped with the above listed amenities compared to the total area of the housing fund (in %).

Spatial differences in the comfort level are quite significant in the region. Such regional centres as Irkutsk, Chita, and Ulan-Ude, as well as a town of the republican subordination Severobaikalsk have relatively high levels of urban development. However, a specific share of the housing fund equipped with urban amenities of every second administrative district of the region is less than 25%. Engineering amenities are absent in the Tere-Khol district of Tuva, Yeravna District of Buryatia (except for gas and electric stoves), and Olkhon district of Irkutsk oblast (indicators for running water, heating, gas and electric stoves do not exceed 20%).

The standard indicators of engineering amenities exceed 50% only in every sixth administrative district. The leaders are the Muisky district in Buryatia (due to new housing built during the Baikal-Amur Mainline construction) and Shelekhov and Slyudyanka Districts in the industrial belt surrounding Big Irkutsk (Irkutsk oblast). Almost half of the housing in three more districts has water supply, sewage and central heating: the Severobaikalsk and Kabansk districts in the Republic of Buryatia and the Irkutsk district in Irkutsk oblast.

Rural housing of the region has the lowest indicators of the degree of provision with urban amenities. The map shows the degree of availability of engineering amenities in rural settlements in administrative districts split into four conventionally identified groups according to the first four amenity indicators (i.e., without gas and electric stoves, as it will artificially improve the situation). In every second rural district, less than 10% of housing facilities are equipped with water supply, sewage, central heating, and baths (4th group). In five districts, this indicator is 10-25% (3rd group) (an average level for the region, but two times lower than the average for rural areas of the SFD): the Zaigraevsky, Ivolginsky, Kabansky and Kizhingsky districts in the Republic of Buryatia and Chita district in Zabaikalsky krai. The leader is the Pribaikalsky district of the Republic of Buryatia (1st group: 45-65 %, which is close to the average indicator of the SFD). This district is followed by three other districts with relatively high levels of development of the rural housing fund: the Severobaikalsky and Selenginsky districts in the Republic of Buryatia and the Irkutsk district in Irkutsk oblast (2nd group).

The analysis of indicators of housing development (as of 2012) in the administrative districts of the Russian part of the Baikal basin demonstrates a very low level of modern housing development, high contrasts between urban and rural settlements, and an extremely low level of comfort of rural territories.

 

References

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Housing and communal services of Zabaikalsky krai. Chita: Zabaikalkraistat. p 112.

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Housing and communal services of the Irkutsk oblast in 2012. Irkutsk: Irkutskstat, 2013. p 76.

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Housing services of the Republic of Buryatia. Ulan-Ude: Buryatstat. p 35.

Document Actions

Construction map

Open full size

Construction

Construction industry in the Baikal basin is one of the growth points of its economy and ecological well-being. One of the main indicators of the construction industry is the square meterage of the built civil and industrial facilities. Generally, it reflects its social and economic status in some regions. A current characterization of a segment of the construction sector – the residential construction – is conducted based on the observation of governmental statistical data [Districts…, 2013; Construction in Zabaikalsky krai, 2013; Construction in Russia, 2012; Construction and commissioning…, 2013] and the Internet resources [Federal State Statistics Service].

In the past three years (2010 to 2012), construction put-in-place increased three-fold (from 0.4 to 1.2 million sq. m). Judging by the growth of the absolute values of the residential construction put-in-place, Irkutsk oblast – the most urbanized region in the basin – tops the list with over a half of the volume of commissioned residential housing in the Baikal basin (2012).  The Republic of Buryatia is the second (26.2 %), and Zabaikalsky krai is the third (19.3 %).

The most important characteristics of residential development is the annual square meterage of the built housing (m²/person), which is presented as a background indicator of the map. By absolute indicators, Russia reached the pre-reform level of residential development in 2007. However, the specific indicator of the floor space of commissioned housing both in the country in general and in the Baikal basin in particular does not exceed 0.5 m²/person (in developed countries the annual construction capacity is at least 1 m² per capita, while the annual growth of housing put-in-place is 4.5-5.0 %) [Federal State Statistics Service]. Territorial differentiation of municipalities of the region according to this important indicator is quite contrasting. High specific indicators and the stable growth dynamics as a result of the implementation of targeted state programs facilitating residential development are observed across the whole territory except for the Republic of Tuva. Irkutsk oblast is leading, with its indicators being twice as high as the indicators of other regions (0.81 m²/person against the average regional indicator of 0.45 m²/person).

The residential construction sector of the region is distinguished by:

− The contrasting nature of its geography both in absolute and standard specific basic values;

− The current focal points of growth – Irkutsk and the Ivolginsky district (Republic of Buryatia).

The most important instruments for improving residential development are targeted state programs of regional and municipal levels. These programs focus on the implementation of comprehensive measures for the development of large-scale residential construction in the region. The key “driver” of the so-needed residential development in the municipalities of the lower level is the social and economic planning using various regional programs.

 

References

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Districts of the Republic of Buryatia. Ulan-Ude: Buryatstat. p 102.

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Construction in Zabaikalsky krai. Chita: Zabaikalkraistat. p 47.

Statistical Compendium. (2012). Construction in Russia. Moscow: Rosstat. p 220.

Statistical Compendium. (2013). Construction and commissioning of facilities in Irkutsk oblast. Irkutsk: Irkutskstat. p 36.

Federal State Statistics Service. Database of municipal indicators. Retrieved from http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/munst/munst.htm

Document Actions
Document Actions
Navigation
« May 2020 »
May
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31
« May 2020 »
May
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31
IW:LEARN